Bibliography of Resources about Native American and Métis Women in Montana

This bibliography lists 19th- and 20th-century resources by and about Montana’s Native American and Métis women and includes published documents, unpublished manuscripts, oral histories, and sound recordings. The bibliography is divided into sections according to type of resource. It includes material by non-Native people who worked with or lived among American Indian women in Montana, such as nurses, teachers, artists, and others who had significant interaction with Montana’s American Indian population for an extended period of time. Specific tribal affiliation is indicated in the oral histories and manuscripts.

Many of the following materials are available from the Montana Historical Society Archives. For your convenience, an MHS call number has been provided in parentheses following each bibliographic entry.

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Published Documents (Books, government documents, and reports)

Aadland, Dan. Women and Warriors of the Plains: The Pioneer Photography of Julia E. Tuell. New York: Macmillan, 1996. (970.00497 AA23W)

Agonito, Rosemary, and Joseph Agonito. Buffalo Calf Road Woman: The Story of a Warrior of the Little Bighorn. Guilford, CT: TwoDot, 2005. (973.82092 AG73B 2006)

Bighead, Kate, and Thomas Marquis. She Watched Custer’s Last Battle: The Story of Kate Bighead. Hardin, MT: Custer Battle Museum, 1935. (PAM 756)

Colton, Larry. Counting Coup: A True Story of Basketball and Honor on the Little Big Horn. New York: Warner Books, 2000. (796.323 C722C)

Flanagan, Darris. Sophie: A Montana Original. Eureka, MT: Big Sky Publications, 2007. (B M825F)

Her Many Horses, Emil. Identity by Design: Tradition, Change, and Celebration in Native Women’s Dresses. New York: Collins, with the National Museum of the American Indian and the Smithsonian Institute, 2007. (746.9 H4121 2007)

Highwalking, Belle. Belle Highwalking: The Narrative of a Northern Cheyenne Woman. Ed. Katherine M. Weist. Billings: Montana Council for Indian Education, 1979. (970.3 C42H538)

Hungry Wolf, Beverly. The Ways of My Grandmothers. New York: Harper Collins, 1998. (970.004 H899W 1980)

Kennerly, Joan Bullshoe, and June Bullshoe Tatsey, Carmen Bullshoe Marceau, Doris Bullshoe Old Person. The Wild Buffalo Ride. Illustrated by Peter Tatsey. Helena: Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2009. (S 398.2 P11WB 2009)

Landes, Ruth. The Ojibwa Woman. New York: Columbia University Press, 1938. Reprinted 1977.

Linderman, Frank B. Pretty-Shield: Medicine Woman of the Crows.1932. Reprint, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003. (970.2 P92L 2003)

———. Red Mother. New York: The John Day Company, 1932. (970.2 P92L)

Manitowabi, Edna. “An Indian Girl in the City,” from “An Ojibwa Girl in the City,” This Magazine Is about Schools 4, no. 4 (1970): 8-24.

Montana Legislative Services Division. Jurisdictions: A Report of the Law, Justice, and Indian Affairs Interim Committee. Helena: Montana Legislative Council, 2000. (S 342.08 L81JRL)

Patterson, Ida. S. Montana Memories: the Life of Emma Magee in the Rocky Mountain West, 1866-1950. Pablo, MT: Salish Kootenai College Press, 2011. (B M271P 2011)

Peavy, Linda, and Ursula Smith. Full-Court Quest: The Girls from Fort Shaw Indian School, Basketball Champions of the World. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008. (796.323 P329F 2008)

Ross, Luana. Inventing the Savage: The Social Construction of Native American Criminality. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998. (364.3 R733I 1998)

Snell, Alma Hogan. Grandmother’s Grandchild: My Crow Indian Life. Ed. Becky Matthews. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000. (B SN277S)

St. Pierre, Mark, and Tilda Long Soldier. Walking in the Sacred Manner: Healers, Dreamers, and Pipe Carriers—Medicine Women of the Plains. New York: Touchstone, 1995.

Voget, Fred W. They Call Me Agnes: A Crow Narrative Based on the Life of Agnes Yellowtail Deernose. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995. (B D36V 1995)

Willis, Jane. Genieish: An Indian Girlhood. Toronto: New Press, 1973.

Wischmann, Lesley. Frontier Diplomats: Alexander Culbertson and Natoyist-Siksina among the Blackfeet. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004.

Worley, Ramona Cameron. Sacajawea, 1788-1884: Refuting Evidence to the Contrary. Fort Collins, CO: Business Express, 2006. (B SA1W 2006)

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Published Articles and Chapters in Anthologies

Anderson, Irving W., and William Clark. “Probing the Riddle of the Bird Woman.” Montana The Magazine of Western History 23, no. 4 (Autumn 1973): 2-17. Download here.

Anderson, Robert. “The Northern Cheyenne War Mothers.” Anthropology Quarterly 129, no. 3 (July 1956): 82-90. Accessed on June 5, 2013. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3316517.

Banks, Anne. “Jessie Donaldson Schultz and Blackfeet Crafts.” Montana The Magazine of Western History 33, no. 4 (Autumn 1983): 18-35. Download here.

Baumler, Ellen. “Justice as an Afterthought: Women and the Montana Prison System.” Montana The Magazine of Western History 58, no. 2 (Summer 2008): 41-59, 97-99. Download here.

Bishop, Joan. “From Hill 57 to Capitol Hill: ‘Making the Sparks Fly’: Sister Providencia Tolan’s Drive on Behalf of Montana’s Off-Reservation Indians, 1950-1970.” Montana The Magazine of Western History 43, no. 3 (Summer 1993):16-29. Download here.

Butler, Anne. “We Had Not Assistance from Anyone—Happier to Do It Alone: Montana, the Missions, and Mother Amadaus,” in Portraits of Women in the American West. Ed. Dee Garceau-Hagen, 91-120. New York: Routledge, 2005.

Campbell, Gregory R. “Changing Patterns of Health and Effective Fertility among the Northern Cheyenne of Montana, 1886-1903.” American Indian Quarterly 15, no. 3 (Summer 1991): 339-358. Accessed on June 4, 2013. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1185474.

Chuinard, E. G. “The Actual Role of the Bird Woman: Purposeful Member of the Corps or Casual ‘Tag Along?’” Montana The Magazine of Western History 26, no. 3 (Summer 1976): 18-29. Download here.

Flannery, Regina. “Men’s and Women’s Speech in Gros Ventre.” International Journal of American Linguistics 12, no. 3 (July 1946): 133-135. Accessed on June 5, 2013. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1262992.

Gray, John. S. “The Story of Mrs. Picotte-Galpin, a Sioux Heroine: Eagle Woman Becomes a Trader and Counsels for Peace, 1868-1888.” Montana The Magazine of Western History 36, no. 3 (Summer 1986), 2-21. Download here.

———. “The Story of Mrs. Picotte-Galpin, a Sioux Heroine Eagle Woman Learns about White Ways and Racial Conflict, 1820-1868.” Montana The Magazine of Western History 36, no. 2 (Spring 1986), 2-21. Download here.

Graybill, Andrew R. “Helen P. Clarke in ‘The Age of Tribes’: Montana’s Changing Racial Landscape, 1870-1920.” Montana The Magazine of Western History 61, no. 1 (Spring 2011): 3-19.  Download here.

Kegg, Maude. Gabekanaansing/At the End of the Trail: Memories of Chippewa Childhood in Minnesota, with Text in Ojibwa and English. Ed. John Nichols. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Linguistic Series, no. 4 (1978).

Kroeber, A. L. “Ethnology of the Gros Ventre. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 1, no. 4 (1908): 145-281.

Lawrence, Jane. “The Indian Health Service and the Sterlization of Native American Women.” American Indian Quarterly 24, no. 3 (Summer 2000): 400-419. Accessed on June 5, 2013. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1185911.

Liberty, Margot. “Hell Came with Horses: Plains Indian Women in the Equestrian Era.” Montana The Magazine of Western History 32, no. 3 (Summer 1982): 10-19. Accessed on June 4, 2013. Download here.

Loeb, Barbara. “Crow Beadwork: The Resilience of Cultural Values.” Montana The Magazine of Western History 40, no. 4 (Autumn 1990): 48-59. Accessed on June 4, 2013. Download here.

Matthews, Becky. “Changing Lives: Baptist Women, Benevolence, and Community on the Crow Reservation, 1904-60.” Montana The Magazine of Western History 61, no. 2 (Summer 2011): 3-29. Download here.

Montana Historical Society Photo Archives. “Women in the American West: An Essay in Pictures.” Montana The Magazine of Western History 24, no. 3 (Summer 1974): 39-57. Download here.

Peterson, Nancy M. “Why Would Anyone be Ashamed? Helen P. Clarke, 1843-1923,” in Walking in Two Worlds: Mixed-blood Indian Women Seeking Their Paths. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Press, 2006.

Peavy, Linda, and Ursula Smith. “Unlikely Champion: Emma Rose Sansaver, 1884-1925,” in Portraits of Women in the American West. Ed. Dee Garceau-Hagen, 179-208. New York: Routledge, 2005.

———. “World Champions: The 1904 Girls’ Basketball Team from Fort Shaw Indian Boarding School.” Montana The Magazine of Western History 51, no. 4 (Winter 2001): 2-25. Download here.

Ralstin-Lewis, D. Marie. “The Continuing Struggle against Genocide: Indigenous Women’s Reproductive Rights.” Wicazo Sa Review 20, no. 1 (Spring 2005): 71-95. Accessed on June 5, 2013. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4140251.

Ross, Luana. “Race, Gender, and Social Control: Voices of Imprisoned Native American and White Women.” Wicazo Sa Review 10, no. 2 (Autumn 1994): 17-39. Accessed on June 4, 2013. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1409131.

Schaffer, Rachel. “Marjorie Bear Don’t Walk and Agnes Crow Interviews” in Feats and Faces: Chronicles of 26 Billings Women, with Photographs. Billings: Association of American University Women, Billings Branch, 1994. (See also, American Association of University Women, Montana Division records, 1980-2002. A6:2-5; A6:2-2; A0:4-2.

Schoenberg, Wilfred P. “Historic St. Peter’s Mission: Landmark of the Jesuits and the Ursulines among the Blackfeet.” Montana The Magazine of Western History 11, no. 1 (Winter 1961): 68-85. Download here.

Terreo, John. “Minerva Allen: Educator Linguist Poet.” Montana The Magazine of Western History 41, no. 1 (Winter 1991), 58-68. Download here.

Wertman, Jodean. “Cheyenne Women: Forgotten in History.” n Northern Cheyenne Oral History Project: An Anthology of Research. Ed. Chuck Denny. Lame Deer: Dull Knife College, 1995.

Wooden Legs, Darlene. “Boarding School Syndrome, as Seen Through My Eyes,” in Northern Cheyenne Oral History Project: An Anthology of Research. Ed. Chuck Denny. Lame Deer, MT: Dull Knife College, 1995.

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Unpublished Manuscripts

American Indian Women’s Essays. James Willard Schultz Indian Heritage Competition Writings, 1975. SC 1315. Montana Historical Society Archives. The James Willard Schultz Indian Heritage Competition was a privately sponsored literary contest in commemoration of this early Montana writer. Collection consists of essays and poems written by Montana Indians reflecting on their attitudes toward Indian life and culture in the Salish, Assiniboine, Apsaalooke, Salish, and Blackfeet tribes. Included in this collection are essays by Patricia Baurle, Loretta Lynn Bell, Delores Durgeloh, Karol McChance, and Cheri Nordwall.

Community Council of Cascade County Records, 1948-1968. SC 1989. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Community Council of Cascade County developed out of the AAUW Child Study Group of Great Falls. It was organized to promote cooperation between various groups working for social change in Cascade County. Records consist of general correspondence, minutes and bylaws, constitutions, membership lists, reports, subject files, and miscellany. A large subject file contains material pertaining to the Council’s committee on Indian affairs, Indian poverty, Indians at Hill 57 in Great Falls, the Rocky Boy Reservation, and Sister Providencia. Additionally, the collection contains material relating to the Montana Conference of Social Welfare, the Montana Society for Mental Health, the Montana Health Planning Committee, the Business and Professional Women’s Club of Great Falls, and the Great Falls chapter of the American Association of University Women (AAUW).

Dolly Smith Cusker Akers Papers, 1927-1985. A9:1-5. Montana Historical Society Archives. (Assiniboine). Dolly Akers was a resident of Wolf Point and Helena, a Republican legislator in the 1930s, chairwoman of the Fort Peck Tribal Council, and a member of the Inter-Tribal Policy Board. This collection contains personal files, correspondence, tribal council materials including minutes, subject files, clippings, photographs, and a scrapbook.

Elizabeth Lochrie Papers, 1890-1997. MC 291; A9:2-2. Montana Historical Society Archives. Elizabeth Lochrie was a western artist who grew up near Deer Lodge and later lived in Butte. In addition to painting portraits of American Indians in and near Glacier National Park (particularly the Blackfeet), Lochrie created children’s murals for the hospital at Galen, presented speeches about Montana and American Indians to service and women’s groups, and wrote about American Indians. The collection contains primarily her subject files and personal correspondence as well as clippings and memorabilia.

Etta Maxson Diary, 1893-1894. SC 1390. Montana Historical Society Archives. Etta Maxson’s diary (September 1893-February 1894) describes her experiences as an employee of the Ramona Mission, an Indian school near Custer, Montana, and her reflections on the life and culture of the area’s Indians, primarily the Northern Cheyenne.

Florence E. Middleton Reminiscence, 1939. SC 2402. Montana Historical Society Archives. Florence Middleton’s reminiscence, titled “Sing a Song of Indians,” recounts her experiences as a teacher for the Indian Service between 1916 and 1946. She taught at reservation schools in Montana, Minnesota, Oregon, Nevada, and California. In Montana, she taught at Rocky Boy and Lame Deer.

Freda Augusta Beazley papers, 1960-1975. MC 187. Montana Historical Society Archives. (Assiniboine). Freda Beazley was a member of the Assiniboine Tribe of the Fort Peck Reservation, Montana. She served as vice president of the National Congress of American Indians; president of the Affiliated Tribes of the Northwest; and rural area coordinator, Montana State Office of Economic Opportunity. This collection of her papers includes correspondence, desk diaries, clippings, publications, and subject files on topics such as the Affiliated Tribes of Northwest Indians, Knowles Dam, and Helena Association of the National Congress of American Indians.

Helen P. Clarke papers, 1872-1934. SC 1153. Montana Historical Society Archives. (Blackfeet). Born in 1846, Helen Piotopawaka Clarke was the daughter of Malcolm Clarke and his Piegan wife, Cothcocona. She left Montana to study acting and had a stage career for several years before returning to Montana to serve as an interpreter for the Office of Indian Affairs after the passage of the Allotment Act in 1887. Ms. Clarke served as Lewis and Clark County superintendent of schools and a teacher for the Bureau of Indian Affairs. She was active in trying to improve the lives of Indians on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation. This collection consists of biographical materials, an application for enrollment in the Blackfeet Tribe, and general correspondence.

Lulu G. Allard papers, 1921-1946. SC 179. Montana Historical Society Archives. Lulu G. Allard was an adopted member of the Salish tribe of Montana. This collection consists of materials relating to her efforts to receive annuity payments as a tribal member. Included is a stipulation from a court case concerning 1921 water rights on the Flathead Indian Reservation; copies of letters from Senator B. K. Wheeler; a fee simple land patent for lots on the reservation; and a letter from the tribal enrollment committee to Mrs. Allard and another letter discussing the issue of termination of the Flathead Reservation.

Margery Hunter Brown papers, 1956-1995. A2:4-1. Montana Historical Society Archives. (Confederated Salish and Kootenai). Margery Hunter Brown was a professor at the University of Montana School of Law. She also was founder and first director of the UM Indian Law Clinic and Associate Justice of the Court of Appeals for the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes. She served eight years on the Montana Human Rights Commission. Brown was a member of the Montana Constitution Revision Commission and was a leader in the League of Women Voters. Papers consist of subject files, correspondence, and printed materials related to her work.

Margot Liberty Report, 1956. SC 441. Montana Historical Society Archives. Margot Liberty taught at a government school in Birney, on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation. In 1956 she also conducted ethnographic studies of the Northern Cheyenne for the Bureau of Indian Affairs for this report. The report includes a population study of the residents of Birney; a family group study; an economic study of the Northern Cheyenne; a plan and idea study; and a report summary. Margot Liberty went on to receive a PhD in Anthropology in 1973 and co-authored or co-edited books on the Northern Cheyenne, including Cheyenne Memories and A Northern Cheyenne Album.

Patty Hard Ground and Fannie Standing Elk interview, 1957 November 2. SC 105.Montana Historical Society Archives. (Northern Cheyenne). Physical description: transcript, 4 pages. Scope and content: Patty Hard Ground was born on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation about 1877. She married Robert Hard Ground. She died in Missoula on July 29, 1963. Fannie Standing Elk was also born on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation about 1876. She married Frank Standing Elk. In this interview, the women describe witnessing the deaths of Head Chief and Young Mule on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation, Montana, on September 13, 1890, by U.S. cavalrymen. The two men had killed Hugh Boyle, nephew of a local rancher.

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Oral Histories (by collection)

20th-Century Montana Military Veterans Oral History Project

Christine Stops Hill interview, 1991 March 26. 20th Century Montana Military Veterans Oral History Project (OH 1534). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Crow). 2-page summary. Topics include her reasons for enlisting in the U.S. Air Force, basic training, special training, her duties with the 321st Security Police Squadron as a security specialist, her military discharge, her subsequent work in law enforcement, and difficulties working with men.

Collena L. Caplett interview, 1990 June 27. 20th Century Montana Military Veterans Oral History Project (OH 1533). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Crow). 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include her service in the U.S. Army, basic training, file clerk training, her duty assignments, and life after her military discharge.

General Montana Oral History Collection

Cecelia Wiseman interview, 1994 February 18. General Montana Oral History Collection (OH 1656). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Métis). 34-page transcript. Topics include her work life from the age of twelve, including working twenty-three years in a nursing home; living in a log house built by her father near the South Fork of the Teton; other cabins in the area; trapping; food preparation and preservation of meat, pemmican, crushed cherries, bread, bannock, fry bread, various herbs and spices, and wine; draw knives; her parents’ Canadian background; baby hammocks; and traditional medicines and remedies.

Cecelia Wiseman interview, 1994 March 1. General Montana Oral History Collection (OH 1661). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Métis). 47-page transcript. Topics include her work in a nursing home; her father’s work stacking hay; photos of family members and friends; straw tick; homesteads; square dances and fiddle music; being dragged by a horse; the family cabin she grew up in; chores; coal oil lights; soap making; using a washboard; bathing; gardens and domestic animals; childhood games; catching coyote pups and gopher tails for bounty; gathering wool and collecting bones for money; dances; the Belleville School; town life; local place names; and women who served in the military during World War II.

Edith M. Eddy interview, 1981 February 12. General Montana Oral History Collection (OH 610). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 20 min.) 1-page summary. Edith M. Eddy, born 1881, was the wife of Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation superintendent John R. Eddy Topics include life on the reservation from 1906 to 1914. Eddy was 100 years old at the time of the interview.

Eula Mae Hall interview, 1994. General Montana Oral History Collection (OH 1638). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 35 min.) Topics include her experiences growing up around Helena; the Hall family ranch outside of White Sulphur Springs; Blackfeet and Crow Indians interactions with her parents; moving to Helena; Helena residents; the history of many of Helena’s historic homes and buildings, including the Warren Hotel, Sixth Street business district, Holter family home, and the Tobin House; and traveling throughout the world with the Holter family as a young woman.

Harriet Whitworth interview, 1983 May 5. General Montana Oral History Collection (OH 1516). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Salish). 1 audio tape. 1-page summary. Harriet Whitworth grew up on the Flathead Reservation. She discusses her childhood, life on the reservation, and education at St. Ignatius.

Julia Schultz and Peter Long Horse interview, 1961 April 21. General Montana Oral History Collection (OH 207). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Gros Ventre). 1 tape (2 hr.) Topics include Gros Ventre lifestyles, tribal customs, and traditional stories. They are members of the Gros Ventre tribe of Montana.

Lucille T. Otter interview, 1995 June 24. General Montana Oral History Collection (OH 1623). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Confederated Salish and Kootenai). 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 10 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include growing up near St. Ignatius on the Flathead Indian Reservation; gaining clerical training in the Works Progress Administration (WPA); the Kicking Horse Job Corps; working for the Native American Division of the Montana CCC as a supply and payroll clerk for Headquarters at Dixon from 1935 to 1942; and living conditions, social activities, and politics at Headquarters.

Maggie Swims Under ceremony, in the Russ Sheen interview, 1968 May 09. General Montana Oral History Collection (OH 37). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Blackfeet) 1 audio tape (10 min.) 5-page transcript. Topics include a Blackfeet Indian legend about Scarface; K. W. Bergan’s making of a film; and a religious ceremony performed at Heart Butte in 1956 by Maggie Swims Under of Browning, who had vowed to perform the ceremony if her grandson recovered from polio.

Nellie Schmidt Weipert interview. General Montana Oral History Collection (OH 848). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 5 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include her work for the Rosebud County welfare department, primarily on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, during the 1950s and 1960s; social life in Forsyth; and her career teaching in rural schools.

Selina Monroe interview, 1982 April 6. General Montana Oral History Collection (OH 566). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Blackfeet). 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 30 min.) 37-page transcript. Topics include her life in Browning as the daughter of a Blackfeet mother and an Irish father; relations between full-bloods and mixed-bloods on the Blackfeet Reservation; Native American ceremonies during the early 1900s; and changes in area place names. Selina Monroe’s daughter, Babe Mutch, and her grandniece, Loretta Pepion, also participate in the interview.

Medicine, Healthcare, and Nursing Oral History Project

Corrine Deriana interview, 1990 August 06. Medicine, Healthcare, and Nursing Oral History Project (OH 1338). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Fort Berthold). 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 40 min.) 48-page transcript. Topics include her early life on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, North Dakota; Indian medicine and health care; family life on the reservation; the 1930s Depression and World War II; attending Indian boarding school in Chemwa, Oregon; work as a nursing assistant in Portland, Oregon; work as a tray girl and nursing assistant at Galen and Warm Springs state hospitals; experiences with tuberculosis and silicosis patients; the treatment of mental patients; American Indian views on death and dying; working at St. James Hospital in Butte; becoming a licensed practical nurse (LPN); lobbying for LPNs in Montana; working conditions in nursing homes; education and credentials for nurses; differences between registered nurses and LPNs; the Green Thumb Program; the Helena Indian Alliance; and changes in nursing and health care during her life.

Stella “Sunny” Peters interview, 1992 August 6. Medicine, Healthcare, and Nursing Oral History Project (OH 1352). Montana Historical Society Archives. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 30 min.) 63-page transcript. Topics include her experiences as a nursing student in Miles City during the 1930s and her later work as a registered nurse on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation.

Metals Manufacturing in Four Montana Communities Oral History Project

Carolyn Crisler interview, 1987 March 16. Metals Manufacturing in Four Montana Communities Oral History Project (OH 966). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (40 min.) 5-page summary. Topics include her operation of the Anaconda Indian Alliance from 1977 to 1986; specific alliance programs she promoted; and her work as a secretary at the Anaconda Company smelter from 1974 to 1975.

Métis Cultural Recovery Oral History Project

Alice Gleason and Ripley Hugo interview, 1995. Métis Cultural Recovery Oral History Project (OH1906). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Métis). Cassette tape(s). 25-page transcript. Alice Gleason was born in Muscatine, Iowa, in 1905, the daughter of Joe and Maggie Rosenfelt. The family moved to Choteau from Billings, Montana, in the 1930s. She talks about dances, prejudice against the Métis, Indian children being sent to boarding school at Holy Family Mission, teaching at the Kalma and Bellview schools, early history of the Métis in Montana, and Matt Hansen’s research.

Carolyn Harsh interview, 1994. Métis Cultural Recovery Oral History Project (OH 1909). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Métis). No tape. 5-page summary transcribed from shorthand. Carolyn Peterson Harsh was born in Farmington, Montana, the daughter of Sheriff Albert Oliver Peterson and his wife, Sophie. She speaks of the dances at Twin Lakes, west of Choteau, and other parties; her father’s homestead and trapping; and her childhood.

Catherine Belgarde interview, 1980. Métis Cultural Recovery Oral History Project (OH 1894). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Métis). Cassette tape(s). 35-page transcript. Catherine Belgarde discusses her early childhood in Edmonton; moving to Lewistown, Montana, washing clothes and dishes as a young women in a mining town named Giltridge, her two marriages (both men died), her work at the Boulder School and Hospital, her parents meeting, her stay at the St. Peter’s Mission Boarding School, having children, an experience crossing the St. Mary’s River by horseback as a young girl, differences between white and Indian students at St. Peter’s school, and taking care of home-bound senior citizens.

Cecelia Wiseman interview. Métis Cultural Recovery Oral History Project (OH 1890). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Métis). Interviewed by Mickie Shelmerdine and Anne Dellwo, March 30, 1994, Choteau, Montana.

Cecelia Wiseman interview. Métis Cultural Recovery Oral History Project (OH 1977). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Métis). Cassette tape(s). 47-page transcript. Cecelia Wiseman discusses photographs of her father haying in the 1930s.

Ila Salois Agee interview, 1995. Métis Cultural Recovery Oral History Project (OH 1888). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Métis). Cassette tape(s). 8-page transcript. In this interview Ila Salois Agee discusses her grandfather, Toussaint Salois, who came to the Dupuyer area from Canada in 1885; his relationship with Louis Riel; her mother’s siblings and their homesteading experiences along Dupuyer Creek; his work building fences, on the Swift Dam, and keeping horses for the King Horse ranch; local dances held between Christmas and New Year’s; a tent village called “Little Chicago”; her marriage to Roy Agee; and their sheep raising operation.

Irene Ford Grande interview, 1994. Métis Cultural Recovery Oral History Project (OH 1895). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Métis). Cassette tape(s). 33-page transcript. Irene Grande discusses her father, Henry Ford, who was the adopted son of Sam Ford and was elected captain of the roundup in the Choteau and Augusta area; cattle drives from Augusta to Craig and load to railroad cars headed for Chicago; Plummer’s gold tales; her father’s donations to the Catholic Church; priests that visited the Ford Ranch; traveling by wagon to Great Falls for supplies; stories she heard about relationship between Métis, Blackfeet, and white people; how Devil’s Lake was named; her mother’s family settling in St. Peter’s Mission; Black Jack Pershing rounding up Métis to take them to Canada; stories she heard about how differently the white girls and Indian girls were treated by the nuns at St. Peter’s; Métis and Indian families losing their land because they didn’t file homestead papers; her experiences of prejudice; recollections of Frank Corchane; and Luk-r-roos (wild wolf) and ghost stories.

Jean Lensing and June Lensing interview. Métis Cultural Recovery Oral History Project (OH 1905). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Métis). Cassette tape(s). 19-page transcript. Jean Helen Bruno Lensing was born in Choteau, Montana, in 1935, the daughter of John and Iola Bruno. She worked as a part-time dispatcher in the sheriff’s office. She talks about being raised by her aunts; food; her father speaking Chippewa-Cree; and her relatives buried at the South Fork cemetery. June Lensing was born in 1925 in Choteau; the daughter of Frank and Minnie Fellers. She talks about living in a log cabin on the South Fork; her mother’s cooking; home remedies; midwives; and dancing at the Belview School.

Josephine Lafromboise interview, 1994 June 08. Métis Cultural Recovery Oral History Project (OH 1654). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Métis). 25-page transcript. Topics include coming to Box Elder in 1914; Turtle Island Indian lands; her father’s work as interpreter for Chief Rocky Boy; Red River carts; the demise of the buffalo; Box Elder families Collings, St. Germaine, and Wiseman; her thirteen children; Moccasin Flats and its growth since 1935; the 1930s Depression; butchering elk and deer; her work in the Beanery and other restaurants.

Josephine Lafromboise interview. Métis Cultural Recovery Oral History Project (OH 1915). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Métis). Cassette tape(s). 25-page transcript. Josephine Lafromboise was born in Turtle Mountain, North Dakota, in 1901, the daughter of Alexander “Standing Elk” Martell and Mary Marceline LaTreille. The family moved to Box Elder, Montana, in 1914. She talks about her father’s storytelling; Red River carts; local Métis families; Turtle Mountain land settlement payments; Eddie Barbeau; and bigfoot stories.

Mabel Pepin Salois interview, 1995. Métis Cultural Recovery Oral History Project (OH 1887). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Métis). Cassette tape(s). 12-page transcript. In this interview Mabel Salois discusses her childhood in Birch Creek; the community of Dupuyer and the derivation of that name; the Dupuyer general store; her mother’s stories about the early years of the reservation following the Riel Rebellion; rations given to Indians on the reservation; the fence that was built around the reservation in 1904 and the permit system; her father, George Davis’ saloon in Dupuyer, the Q & L; the family gardens; attending school at Old Family Mission; her work as a seamstress for the boarding school; doing “cutting out” work for the Works Progress Administration (WPA); a Badger Creek burial site; her father’s sheep herd on Birch Creek; and her sixteen children.

Marie Gray interview, 1995. Métis Cultural Recovery Oral History Project (OH 1904). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Métis). Cassette tape(s). 13-page transcript. Marie Gray was born in Choteau in 1927, the daughter of William and Flora (Azure) Carrier. She lived with her grandparents after her parents died and then with her aunt and uncle. Her older brothers and sisters were at the Holy Family Mission. She talks of her stay at the Mission; of going to work at a restaurant at age fifteen; working for Dr. Bateman, at a nursing home, and at a bakery; and her marriage to Alfred Gray in 1942.

Mickie Shelmerdine interview, 1995. Métis Cultural Recovery Oral History Project (OH 1901). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Métis). 41-page transcript. In this interview Mickie Shelmerdine, Choteau, Montana, resident, discusses her career in nursing, primarily in Choteau Hospital from the 1940s to 1970s; her Blackfeet heritage; her Métis heritage; her grandfather’s work as a guide in Glacier National Park from its inception in 1910; family allotment properties; other Métis families in Choteau; folk medicine; and family and community celebrations—including discussions of music and food.

Myrtle Bushman Reardon interview, 1994 February 2. Métis Cultural Recovery Oral History Project (OH 1655). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Métis). 53-page transcript. Topics include growing up west of Choteau on Battle Creek; her family’s connection to the Riel Rebellion; food preparation and preservation, including wine, bannock, and crushed cherries; sewing and clothes; children’s games; Red River carts; her parents speaking French and Cree; New Year’s dances and other dances; her mother’s wedding clothing; her mother making moccasins, gloves, and neckerchiefs; the 1910 forest fire; and her mother’s childbirths.

Myrtle Reardon interview, 1994. Métis Cultural Recovery Oral History Project (OH 1914). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Métis). Cassette tape(s). 53-page transcript. Myrtle Reardon, daughter of Adolph and Ellen (Salois) Bushman, was born in 1911, at Battle Creek near Choteau. The family moved into Choteau in the 1920s. She talks about leaving school in the 8th grade to help support the family; how the family kept quiet about circumstances around their leaving Canada after the Riel Rebellion; berry picking; Métis foods; getting rid of Red River carts; parents speaking French and Cree in the home; dances; and the 1910 forest fires.

Ruby Velmer interview, 1995. Métis Cultural Recovery Oral History Project (OH 1898 ). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Métis). Cassette tape(s). 37-page transcript. In this interview Ruby Velmer discusses her mother’s background; childhood feelings about Indians; her marriage to David Parenteau and his family background; his military service during World War II; her son’s service in and life after the Vietnam War; reactions in her family to their Métis heritage; attempts to gather stories; Métis foods—including bullet soup; herbs and plants used for medicinal purposes; other home remedies; dances and fiddle music; gathering berries—chokecherry, sarvis, bull berries; bead work done by her husband’s family; rubberroo (wild bird stew); wolverine stories; the death of her father; her parents’ homestead near Chinook; experiences of prejudice against her and her children in Chinook and Stockett; and her feelings about the Catholic Church.

Montanans at Work Oral History Project

Alice Kinzel interview, 1983 March 12. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 497). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 cassette tape (50 min.) 1-page summary. Topics include ranch life on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation from 1900 to 1950 and her life as the wife of a trail driver from Texas.

Douglas Glenmore and Josephine Glenmore interview, 1983 March 15. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 496). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 50 min.) 1-page summary. Topics include life on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation from the 1920s to the 1940s; domestic crafts; and his work as a cowboy.

Liane R. McGuire interview, 1982 September 26. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 491). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 35 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her childhood experiences on her parents’ homestead near Moore, ca. 1910-1920; and her work with her husband, Robert McGuire, teaching in the Fort Kipp School on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation during the 1930s.

Nellie Agnstrom Olson interview, 1982 August 20. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 340). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (40 min.) 1-page summary. Topics include migrating from Canada to Montana; her early life in Cut Bank and Valier; and living and working in Hardin and on the Crow Indian Reservation.

Stella “Sunny” Peters interview, 1983 March 4. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 495). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 10-page summary. Topics include her work as a nurse for the Northern Cheyenne Indian Health Service during the 1940s, and health care and living conditions on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation.

Walter Yeager and Leona Parkhurst Yeager interview, 1982 October 22. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 405). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 25 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include Walter’s homesteading experiences in the Plentywood area, ca. 1910-1920, and operating a coal mine during the 1930s. Leona Yeager recalls teaching experiences on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation during the 1920s, and the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and the Depression.

Native American Educators Oral History Project

Carlene Old Elk interview, 1989 May 31. Native American Educators Oral History Project (OH 1232). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Crow). 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 47-page transcript. Topics include her childhood and education in South Carolina; her VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America) work for the Head Start program on the Crow Indian Reservation; her marriage into the Crow tribe; bilingual education; teaching at Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency; voting rights; and discrimination.

Ernestine Sine Cornelius and Carmen Cornelius Taylor interview, 1989 July 21. Native American Educators Oral History Project (OH 1238). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Confederated Salish and Kootenai). 2 audio tapes (2 hrs.) 6-page summary. Ernestine Cornelius discusses her early life on the Flathead Indian Reservation; attending various boarding schools; and subsequent educational experiences. Her daughter Carmen Taylor (b. 1949) discusses her family; discrimination against Native Americans in education; her employment with the BIA; and legislation affecting Native American education.

Henrietta Whiteman interview, 1989 July 10. Native American Educators Oral History Project (OH 1237). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Southern Cheyenne). 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 4-page summary. Topics include her childhood in Oklahoma; her family’s strong support for education; learning the Cheyenne language; accusations that she wanted to be white because she did not live in an Indian camp; the impact of World War II on her father; Indian boarding schools; her education; teaching in the Native American Studies program at the University of Montana in Missoula; her work as the first female director of the BIA Office of Indian Education; and discrimination in schools.

Josephine Pease Russell interview, 1989 February 24 and 25. Native American Educators Oral History Project (OH 1227). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Crow). 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 24-page transcript. Topics include her childhood on the Crow Indian Reservation during the 1920s; her education at Lodge Grass School; attending college in Oregon; teaching at Crow Agency; and the Head Start program.

Minerva Allen interview, 1989 June 7. Native American Educators Oral History Project (OH 1234). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Assiniboine and Gros Ventre). 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 30 min.) 65-page transcript. Topics include her childhood on the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation; teaching school at Lodgepole; living conditions on the reservation; her training for the Head Start program and her directorship of that program; bilingual programs; and the role of women. Resident of Hays.

Rachel Bowers interview, 1988 June 25. Native American Educators Oral History Project (OH 1286). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Confederated Salish and Kootenai tribes). 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 20 min.) 14-page summary. Topics include her family; her early life in Charlo and Arlee; her education and experiences in public schools; her employment with the Community Action Program; difficulties with state and federal agencies; Native American religious customs; attitudes concerning Native American studies programs; federal legislation affecting Native American education; her part-time work as a bartender; her work with youth; alternative schools; and Native American medicine.

Rebecca Roberts interview, 1989 May 15. Native American Educators Oral History Project (OH 1231). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Blackfeet). 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 50-page transcript. Topics include her childhood on the Blackfeet Reservation; her education at a boarding school in Babb; attending Northern Montana College in Havre; teaching jobs in Hays and Great Falls; and the Educational Talent Search program.

Vernie Chopwood Bell interview, 1989 June 12. Native American Educators Oral History Project, (OH 1236). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Assiniboine and Gros Ventre). 1 audio tape (30 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her childhood on the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation; her Native American name Cha Knock Ba (Sweet Balm); her Assiniboine and Gros Ventre heritage; her education; Fort Belknap Indian College; her work with the Head Start program in Lodgepole; the impacts of the Johnson-O’Malley Act and Title IV on Native American education; and her work with senior citizens at the Lodgepole Senior Center.

New Deal in Montana/Fort Peck Dam Oral History Project

Effie Hogan interview, 1989 May 22. New Deal in Montana/ Fort Peck Dam Oral History Project (OH 1163). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Crow). 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 10-page transcript. Topics include her recollections of C.A. Asbury, the superintendent on the Crow Reservation; her husband, Superintendent Robert (Robbie) Yellowtail; the Shoshone Sun Dance; Sun Dancers Caleb Bull Shows, William Big Day, Camel Big Hail, and Henry Big Day; Crow Fair celebrations; the construction of roundhalls; and the Crow language.

John Willman and Monte Rene Willman interview, 1988 November 17. New Deal in Montana/ Fort Peck Dam Oral History Project (OH 1147). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 8-page summary. Topics include their childhoods; conditions during the 1930s Depression; their duties with the Works Progress Administration and with the National Youth Administration; social activities in Plevna; and members of the Northern Cheyenne tribe in the Lame Deer area.

Mae Takes Gun Childs interview, 1989 May 10. New Deal in Montana/ Fort Peck Dam Oral History Project, (OH 1162). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Crow). 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 13-page summary. Topics include the differences between the Crow Agency superintendents C.A. Asbury and Robert (Robbie) Yellowtail; the return of the Sun Dance to the Crow Reservation; Crow Fair celebrations; attending St. Xavier Mission school, run by the Ursuline Sisters; peyote and the police; CCC camps; and the Crow language.

Myrtle Bushman Reardon interview, 1984 March 1. New Deal in Montana/ Fort Peck Dam Oral History Project (OH 757). Montana Historical Society Archives. (Métis). 1 audio tape (1 hr., 5 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include Choteau-area businesses and entertainment from the 1920s to the 1940s; Indian-white relations in the area; and Chinese resident Soo Son.

Women as Community Builders Oral History Project

Kathleen Quam interview, 1987 August 2. Women as Community Builders Oral History Project (OH 1023). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (55 min.) Topics include her early days in the Lutheran Church; intercultural relations within white and Indian communities; her work as a supporter and pianist for the Dakota Indian Presbyterian Church in Frazer; her employment as a substitute teacher; and tutoring a paralyzed Indian student, Mitchell Todd. Resident of Frazer.

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Sound Recordings

Crossing Boundaries: The Story of Sophie Morigeau. Directed by Frank Tyro. 2001. Spokane, WA: Avista Corp and Salish Kootenai College, 2001. DVD. (DVD 978.681 M825C 2001)

Graybill, Andrew. “A Mixture of So Many Breeds: Helen P. Clarke and the Transformation of Late 19th Century Montana.” Presented at the 34th Annual Montana History Conference, 2007. Audio Tape. Montana Historical Society Archives. OH 2224. Tape 10 of the 34th Annual Montana History Conference, Proceedings.

Heart of the Bitterroot: Voices of Salish & Pend d’Oreille Women. Executive producer, Julie Cajun. Produced by Gary Stroutsos. Co-produced by Gary Lanz and Julie Cajune. Written by Jennifer Greene. Composed by Gary Stroutsos and David Lanz. Arlee, Montana: Npustin, 2007. CD. (CD 781.629794 C124H 2007)

Plain Feather, Mardell, and Vernon Sootkis. “Nothing Plain About It: Clothing Styles of the Crow and Northern Cheyenne.” Presented at the 33rd Annual Montana History Conference, 2006. Audio Tape. Montana Historical Society Archives. OH 2221. Tape 3 of the 33rd Annual Montana History Conference, Proceedings.

Playing for the World. Produced by John Twiggs, KUFM-TV, Montana PBS, and the University of Montana, Missoula. Missoula: KUFM, Montana PBS, and University of Montana, 2009. DVD. (DVD 796.323 M762P 2009)

Williams, Carol J. “Industry and Enterprise: The Diversity of Native American Women’s Waged and Unwaged Work in Montana, 1933-1980.” Presented at the 34th Annual Montana History Conference, 2007. Audio Tape. Montana Historical Society Archives. OH 2224. Tape 10 of the 34th Annual Montana History Conference, Proceedings.

2 thoughts on “Bibliography of Resources about Native American and Métis Women in Montana

  1. HI. I’m from Canada and would like to access this resource Flanagan, Darris. Sophie: A Montana Original. Eureka, MT: Big Sky Publications, 2007. (B M825F). Are you able to help me? It’s for a research paper I am doing. Thanks.

    • The Montana Historical Society is a special collections library, so we don’t loan books. Does your local library participate in an interlibrary loan program? Perhaps they can arrange to borrow a copy for you. Good luck.