Manuscript Bibliography of Montana’s 19th-Century Women

This bibliography includes items from the Manuscript Collections and Small Collections of the Montana Historical Society Archives. Some of these entries are repeated in the 20th-century bibliography.

Download a list of collections here.


Adelaide Staves Reeder papers, 1882-1902, MC 101. Montana Historical Society Archives. Adelaide Reeder was a Helena, Montana, teacher and suffragist. This collection (1882-1902) consists of general correspondence, miscellany, and two scrapbooks of clippings, one dealing with her own life and one consisting of articles written by her father-in-law P. W. Reeder concerning prohibition, foreign travels, crossing the plains, the California gold rush, and the annexation of Hawaii.

Albert B. Kimball Family papers, 1864-1957, MC 188. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection consists of papers from three generations of Kimball and Hanson families from 1864 to 1957. The Peter and Anna Gustafsen Hanson Subgroup contains correspondence and financial records (1894-1895) about their creamery business in Stevensville, Montana; their marriage certificate; naturalization papers of Peter (1872, 1892); and an autograph book (1881-1886). The Albert and Hilma Kimball Subgroup consists of correspondence (1897-1940), including Hilma’s letters of recommendation as a teacher and appointments to teaching positions (1897-1903); diaries (1933-1944), including Hilma’s reminiscences and an article on Butte’s history; and miscellaneous papers, including autograph books (1880-1891), Hilma’s school records (1893-1902), and scrapbooks (1927-1941).

Allis Brown Stuart papers, 1863-1942, SC 1009. Montana Historical Society Archives. Allis Stuart (b. 1863) was a schoolteacher at Maiden and Sidney, Montana, wife of Granville Stuart, and an amateur historian. This collection includes a diary (1891-1898) detailing her travels to Yellowstone Park and other places in Montana and describing her life in Paraguay and Uruguay; biographical sketches (undated) and genealogical information; correspondence (1916-1943) with William A. Clark, George Bird Grinnell, and others; notes (undated) from her oral interviews with George T. Baggs, Dixie Burr, Andrew Garcia, Mrs. James Stuart, Mark W. Watson, and Nathaniel E. Wilkinson; her life reminiscence (1946?); and historical writings (1914, 1927, 1941-1942) on the DHS Ranch, pioneers of the Bitterroot Valley, and other topics.

Alma Coffin Kirkpatrick diary, 1878-1884, SC 940. Montana Historical Society Archives. Alma Kirkpatrick was a Glendale and Dillon, Montana Territory, resident and wife of rancher James Kirkpatrick. Her reminiscence (c. 1910) consists of abstracts from her diary and discusses her trip to Montana Territory by steamboat in 1878, her experiences as a schoolteacher at Glendale in 1880, and life in Glendale from 1878 to 1884.

Alvie Nave Kaiser diary, 1890-1891, SC 1488. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection consists of Alvie Nave Kaiser’s diary (April 1890-June 1891), which tells of her marriage to rancher Edward Kaiser, their life on a Myersburg, Montana, homestead, and her daily activities as a homemaker and wife.

Ann Clark Thruston Farrar papers, 1820-1822, SC 684. Montana Historical Society Archives. Ann Farrar was a niece of George Rogers Clark and William Clark, and mother-in-law of Helena financier Samuel T. Hauser. Her papers include two letters from Mrs. Farrar’s mother, Fannie F. Thruston, discussing family matters; and a short family sketch by Ann Farrar’s daughter Ellen Farrar Hauser.

Anne Herron Fuller letters, 1880-1889, SC 722. Montana Historical Society Archives. Anne Fuller (1874-1953), was a Chinook, Montana, area rancher. Her letters (1941) to her children describe her experiences living on various western army posts where her father was stationed in the 1880s.

Annette Anson records, 1866, SC 362. Montana Historical Society Archives. The collection consists of the depositions of Annette Anson and William J. Bartlett in Annette’s attempt to obtain a divorce from Allen Anson on the grounds of desertion and adultery. In her deposition Annette claimed to be the first female resident of Virginia City.

Aurelia Ryan Tipton diary, 1878, SC 853. Montana Historical Society Archives. In her diary (June-September, 1878) Aurelia Tipton describes her family’s overland journey from Red Bluff, California, to Helena, Montana Territory. The diary, a typescript of Aurelia’s original notes and annotated by her husband, provides information concerning miles traveled daily, water availability, gathering and preparing food, and Native American conflicts. Mr. Tipton’s annotations primarily address violent encounters between Whites and Native Americans.

Bertha Josephson Anderson reminiscence, 1940, SC 360. Montana Historical Society Archives. Reminiscence of Bertha’s life in Denmark, her trip to Montana in 1889, and homesteading near Sidney up to about 1930. [This typescript, edited by her daughter Dr. Camilla Anderson, consists of excerpts from the original reminiscence.]

Bessie K. Monroe reminiscence, 1968, SC 1503. Montana Historical Society Archives. Bessie Monroe was a Hamilton, Montana, resident and newspaperwoman. Her reminiscence (1968) discusses her childhood on the Kerlee family homestead in the Tincup area near Darby during the 1890s.

C. Adelia French Hale reminiscence, 1864-1874, SC 782. Montana Historical Society Archives. San Bernadino, California, resident Adelia French traveled with her family to Virginia City, Montana Territory, in 1864, and later married a Helena jeweler, N. B. Hale. The couple moved to California in 1874. Her reminiscences (1929) concentrate on the trip to Montana, but there is some comment on conditions in gold camps of the period.

Carolina Weigand Bremer reminiscence, 1878-1964, SC 1672. Montana Historical Society Archives. In this manuscript, compiled and edited from an oral interview, Carolina describes her family’s trip to Montana Territory in l878, homesteading near Great Falls, her marriage to Henry Bremer in l903, and their move to Collins, Montana, in l913.

Carolyn Abbott Tyler reminiscence, 1862-1865, SC 1430. Montana Historical Society Archives. Carolyn Tyler was a member of the 1862 Fisk Expedition into what became Montana Territory. Her reminiscence (undated) describes the overland journey to Fort Benton, encounters with Indians, and several fur posts along the route. Also included are writings on the early development of Virginia City, including mines, community, and vigilantes; a letter from her great-granddaughter Mrs. Hester deLisle Beard to George G. Bruntz; and an unpublished article by Bruntz.

Carrie J. Jones reminiscence, 1893-1920, SC 1330. Montana Historical Society Archives. Carrie J. Jones was a pioneer Havre, Montana, resident. Her reminiscence, entitled “Reminiscence of Early Days in Havre” describes the town from 1893 to 1920.

Clara J. Blake reminiscence, [1928?], SC 436. Montana Historical Society Archives. Clara, a Boston native, was the wife of Henry N. Blake, chief justice of the Montana Supreme Court. Her reminiscence recounts her honeymoon and trip to Montana Territory in l870.

Clara Kennedy papers 1867-1908, SC 1664. Montana Historical Society Archives. Clara Hart Kennedy was a Helena, Montana, resident. Papers (1867-1908) contain material concerning her first husband, Samuel S. Hart, assistant federal assessor for Montana Territory in 1870; and her second husband, George S. Kennedy, a mining superintendent for the Park City Mining Company. Included are correspondence; legal documents; and miscellany, including a certificate (April 14, 1908) verifying the election of H. H. Guthrie as Helena police judge.

Daniel Webster Slayton and Lizzie Ellis Slayton papers, 1883-1934, MC 178. Montana Historical Society Archives. D. W. Slayton was a Lavina area sheep rancher, merchant, and politician. The collection consists of diaries kept by D. W. (1884-1927) describing daily life; by his wife, Lizzie (1917-1918, 1928, 1930-1934), describing her daily activities, social life, and health; and by their sixteen-year-old son Daniel (1907) describing school in Helena and Bozeman, friends, activities, and summer work on the ranch. The collection also contains correspondence (1883-1918) among the three, primarily between D. W. and Lizzie before their marriage in l887.

Eliza Eardley Hardin reminiscence, undated, SC 788. Montana Historical Society Archives. In this reminiscence Eliza describes her family’s wagon journey from California to Anaconda, Montana Territory, in 1881.

Eliza Waring O’Neil reminiscence, [ca. 1915], SC 603. Montana Historical Society Archives. Eliza O’Neil’s reminiscence (undated) describes her wagon journey to Montana Territory in 1864 with her first husband, Robert P. Waring, and her life in Diamond City and Helena.

Elizabeth Ann “Rose” Morrow Rust reminiscence, 1885-1909, SC 1415. Montana Historical Society Archives. This reminiscence (undated) by Elizabeth “Rose” Rust, daughter of William Morrow, describes her life in Basin and Butte, Montana, from 1885 to 1909. [Compiled by her daughter Harriette Dommes.]

Elizabeth Cox Fabrick remininscence, 1880-1883, SC 676. Montana Historical Society Archives. Elizabeth Fabrick’s reminiscence (1937) describes her trip to Montana in 1880 and some of her experiences living in Butte from 1880 to 1883. [Extracted from a letter written to her granddaughter in 1937; copied and edited by her niece Esther Goodale.]

Elizabeth E. Busick O’Neil reminiscence, 1863-1877, SC 94. Montana Historical Society Archives. Elizabeth O’Neil’s reminiscence (c. 1907) describes her wagon journey from Omaha, Nebraska, to Virginia City, Montana Territory, in 1863, and her experiences in Virginia City and Diamond City from 1864 to 1877.

Elizabeth Emmons “Bessie” James reminiscence, 1881, SC 861. Montana Historical Society Archives. Elizabeth “Bessie” James was a pioneer Deer Lodge Valley, Montana Territory, resident. This collection consists of a typed transcript of an oral reminiscence concerning her family’s wagon journey from California to Montana Territory in 1881. [Interviewed by Spencer L. Tripp, 1947.]

Elizabeth Floweree Wallace papers, 1884-1890, SC 1804. Montana Historical Society Archives. Elizabeth Wallace was the wife of Helena, Montana Territory, attorney William Wallace Jr. Papers (1884-1890) include a scrapbook containing handwritten copies of poems; a scrapbook of clippings about her marriage and her husband’s political and legal careers; and three certificates admitting Wallace to practice law before the U.S. Supreme Court and the district and circuit courts.

Ella Bailey letter, 1892, SC 1865. Montana Historical Society Archives. In a letter to her brother, Clarence H. Sweet, Ella relates the details of her husband’s death in a mining accident in Alder Gulch, Montana, the funeral, and her financial expectations as a widow.

Ellen “Nellie” Fletcher papers, 1866-1870, SC 78; SC 1977. Montana Historical Society Archives. Ellen Fletcher was a mining and ranching wife in Summit City, Montana Territory, and later in the Madison Valley. SC 78 consists of letters (1866-1870) by Nellie to her family in New York describing her overland trip to Montana and life in the mining camps. Typescript copies of diary entries from her wagon trip to Montana in 1866 can be found in SC 1977, along with some family correspondence. [The letters in SC 78 are photocopies of typescripts at Montana State University. Portions of Nellie’s diary were published by her great-grandson, Francis D. Haines, in A Bride on the Bozeman Trail: The Letters and Diary of Ellen Gordon Fletcher, 1866, Medford, OR: Gendee, 1970; the entries in SC 1977 were not published.]

Emily R. Meredith papers, 1862-1863, SC 288. Montana Historical Society Archives. Emily Meredith was a pioneer resident of Bannack, Montana Territory. Her papers consist of a reminiscence entitled “By wagon from Bannack City to the Bitter Root Valley 1862-1863”; a letter (April 30, 1863) to her father describing living conditions in Bannack; miscellaneous writings; and biographical materials from her college alma mater, Hamline University of Michigan.

Emma Carpenter Cowan reminiscence, 1902, SC 576. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection contains an 80-page handwritten reminiscence (1902) by Emma Carpenter Cowan describing her trip to Montana Territory; life in Virginia City as a child; traveling to Mammoth Hot Springs and other parts of Yellowstone Park; capture by the Nez Perce Indians; and the injuries and ordeal of her husband, George F. Cowan, during the Nez Perce encounter. [Published in Contributions to the Montana Historical Society, volume 4, pgs. 156-187.]

Estella Amanda Muth diaries 1881-1890, SC 2157. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection consists of diaries (1881-1890) kept by Estella Amanda Hoyt Muth, wife of Helena businessman William Muth. Entries in her diaries describe daily life in Helena; the residents of Marysville, Belmont, and Helena; and trips to Yellowstone Park, Seattle, Flathead Lake, and the Blackfoot River country. Also included are typed transcripts created in March 1995 and signed by Estella Muth’s great-grandson Art Dwelley.

Etta Maxson diary, 1893-1894, SC 1390. Montana Historical Society Archives. Etta Maxson’s diary (September 1893-February 1894) describes her experiences as an employee of the Ramona Mission, an Indian school near Custer, Montana; and her reflections on the life and culture of the area’s Indians. Original diary owned by Mrs. Leon E. Hopkins, Lyndon Center, Vermont.

Evelena O. Marsh O’Neal reminiscence, 1955, SC 169. Montana Historical Society Archives. Evelena O’Neal’s reminiscences (1955) describe her steamboat journey to Montana Territory in 1883; and her life at Fort Carroll, Rocky Point, Big Sandy, and Chinook.

Evelyn J. Cameron and Ewen S. Cameron papers, 1893-1929, MC 226. Montana Historical Society Archives. Evelyn J. Cameron was a pioneer photographer and rancher in eastern Montana. Her husband, Ewen S. Cameron, raised polo ponies and studied and wrote about wildlife, particularly birds, of eastern Montana. This collection consists of letters, postcards, and greeting cards (1903-1929); thirty-five diaries (1893-1928) kept by Evelyn; a journal (n.d.) kept by Evelyn containing notes, copied poems and sayings, and clippings; clippings removed from Evelyn’s diaries and journal; a scrapbook (1900-1915) containing clippings on wildlife; seven articles (1905-1914) written by Ewen; various manuscripts (1904-1912) written by Ewen; and homestead papers (1903-1917).

Fannie Comer Snow letter, 1950, SC 761. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection consists of a letter (February 22, 1950) from Fannie Snow to her niece Mrs. LeRoy Anderson, describing her wagon journey from Texas to Montana Territory, around 1883.

Fannie Forbis Irvine Russel reminiscence, undated, SC 165. Montana Historical Society Archives. Fannie Russel (b. 1846), daughter of a former slave owner, describes her wagon journey as a young bride with her husband, David L. Irvine, to Montana Territory in 1864, and her first year at Racetrack, in the Deer Lodge Valley. [Two versions of reminiscence: one undated, one transcribed from a talk to the Junior Historical Society, November 19, 1920.]

Fisk Family papers, 1858-1901, MC 31. Montana Historical Society Archives. The collection consists primarily of family correspondence, the largest percentage of which is the incoming and outgoing correspondence (1857-1906) of Elizabeth Chester Fisk. The collection also contains correspondence (1859-1905) of Robert Fisk including letters from Montana Territorial Secretary James E. Callaway and Governor Benjamin F. Potts; the Civil War letters (1862-1865) of Robert and Van Hayden Fisk; letters (1870-1891) between Robert and Lizzie Fisk’s children (Asa, Florence, Grace, James K., and Robert) and Elizabeth’s mother, Mrs. Isaac Chester; and a photocopy of a letter (1864) to James L. Fisk from the Secretary of War, appointing him to lead an expedition via Fort Benton.

Flora Gardner letter, 1879 June 11, SC 196. Montana Historical Society Archives. In this letter to Mr. and Mrs. D. M. Vinsonhaler, Flora Gardner reminisces about a journey she took from Fort Benton, Montana Territory, to Bozeman in 1879.

Flora McKay McNulty papers, 1872-1938, MC 261. Montana Historical Society Archives. Flora McKay moved to Virginia City, Montana Territory, with her parents in 1863. She grew up in Virginia City and returned there after receiving an education, including a medical degree, in the Midwest. The collection consists of correspondence (1876-1935); court papers (1925) concerning water and land rights; financial records (1875-1934); legal documents (1876-1933), primarily concerning building and mining agreements; and school notes and records (172-1910) from Virginia City grade school through Chicago Women’s Medical College. Also included are subgroups for the numerous women’s groups in which she participated, including the Ladies of the Macabees, Ladies Reading Club, Madison County Federation of the Women’s Clubs, and Union Circle of King’s Daughters.

Florence Fisk papers, 1886, undated, SC 1405. Montana Historical Society Archives. Florence Fisk was the daughter of Montana pioneers Robert and Elizabeth Fisk. Collection consists of a letter from her grandmother, Azubah Chester, concerning family matters; and two undated poems entitled “The Silver Bird’s Nest” and “The Party Gown.”

Fortnightly Club records, 1890-2005, MC 203. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Fortnightly Club was founded by Mrs. Frances W. Wickes to study English literature. It was the first organization in Montana to function as a literary circle. This collection (1890-2005) consists of incoming correspondence, financial records, minutes, organizational records, miscellany, attendance records, outlines of study, programs, histories of the club, a scrapbook, and clippings.

Frances Lynn Turpin diary, 1895 August 8-21, SC 156. Montana Historical Society Archives. Frances Turpin was a St. Louis, Missouri, resident. Her diary (August 8-21, 1895) describes a trip through Yellowstone National Park.

Frank Leedy and Jeannette Morrow Whitehead Leedy reminiscences, [1915?], SC 373. Montana Historical Society Archives. Frank Leedy (b. 1841) reminisces about his travel from Salt Lake City, Utah, to Helena, Montana Territory, in 1866, and his work prospecting and mining. His wife, Jeannette Morrow Leedy (b. 1856), tells of her life in Montana Territory in the 1860s and 1870s while married to her first husband John C. Whitehead. [Interviewed by A. J. Noyes as part of the MHS-A. J. NOYES BIOGRAPHICAL PROJECT.]

Genieve Woodruff Craig speech, undated, SC 1327. Montana Historical Society Archives. Speech given before the Society of the Daughters of the U.S. Army. Genieve Craig describes her father Charles Albert Woodruff’s career in the army in the Civil War and at Fort Shaw, Montana, in the 1870s. She also describes her early married life in the Philippines, including a cholera epidemic.

Grand Army of the Republic Montana Department records, 1881-1941, MC 205. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection is arranged in four subgroups. The first subgroup contains Department of Montana records of the Grand Army of the Republic, the Woman’s Relief Corps, and the Ladies of the G.A.R., including general correspondence (1893-1934, undated); outgoing correspondence (1885-1936), including general and special orders and circulars; financial records (1887-1918); organizational materials (1903, 1933, undated); miscellany, including encampment programs and minutes, index to records of local posts, histories, membership information, and roster books, etc.; and clippings (1920-1921, undated).

Harriet P. F. Sanders reminiscence, 1863-1897, SC 1254; Microfilm 86D. Montana Historical Society Archives. Harriet Sanders was the wife of Helena, Montana Territory, attorney Wilbur Fisk Sanders. Her reminiscence (1897), entitled “Trip Across the Plains and Early Life in Montana, 1863-1897,” describes travel by steamboat and stagecoach; life in Bannack, Virginia City, and Helena, Montana Territory; and Salt Lake City, Utah, and her impressions of Mormon society. Her diary (January-December 1888) describes family activities. Also included is a handwritten “History of Italy.”

Hazel Cole Converse reminiscence, 1890-1899, SC 1808. Montana Historical Society Archives. In her reminiscence, entitled “I Remember, I Remember,” Hazel recalls her childhood in Marysville during the 1890s, including memories of her father, Dr. J. V. Cole, the first dentist in Marysville.

Helen Fitzgerald Sanders collection, 1886-1955, SC 223. Montana Historical Society Archives. Helen Sanders was a Helena and Butte, Montana, author and historian. This collection (1886-1955) consists of research materials, including John X. Biedler’s draft of his reminiscence, compiled by her during the writing of “John X. Biedler: Vigilante,” by her and William Bertsche Jr.

Helen P. Clarke papers, 1872-1934, SC 1153. Montana Historical Society Archives. Helen was the Lewis and Clark County Superintendent of Schools and a teacher for the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs. She was active in trying to improve the lives of Native Americans on the Blackfeet Reservation. Her collection consists of correspondence and biographical materials.

Helena Women’s Relief Committee records, 1887-1894, SC 997. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Helena Women’s Relief Committee was a Helena, Montana, charitable organization. Records consist of a minute book (February 1887-December 1893) containing bylaws, minutes, reports, and financial entries. There is also a brief history (December 1894) of the organization written by Elizabeth C. Fisk, and miscellany.

Henrietta Shoults Ellis reminiscence, undated, SC 1491. Montana Historical Society Archives. Henrietta Ellis reminisces about her childhood days in Homer, Iowa, and northern Colorado; life on ranches around Buffalo, Wyoming, in the 1880s with her husband, Harvey Ellis; and life in Millegan, near Great Falls. Also included are two poems about Millegan and the surrounding area.

Henry B. and Elizabeth E. Hoffman papers, 1872, SC 1737. Montana Historical Society Archives. Henry B. Hoffman and his wife, Elizabeth, lived in Deer Lodge, Montana Territory, in the 1860s and 1870s. This collection consists of a letter (May 21, 1872) to their niece in the East describing farming, gardening, and mining activities; and Elizabeth’s homesickness for the East and the loneliness of her life in Deer Lodge. Despite her stated desire to leave Montana, Elizabeth remained following her husband’s death.

Hugh Samuel Lewis and Mary Jane Jones Lewis letters, 1886-1897, SC 1918. Montana Historical Society Archives. Hugh Lewis and his wife, Mary Jane Jones Lewis, were sheep ranchers near Putnam, Montana Territory, in the Yellowstone River Valley. Hugh’s letters (1886-1887) to his fiancée, Mary Jane Jones, tell of his life on the sheep ranch, prairie fires, hot springs, weather conditions, etc. There are also letters (1888-1897) from Mary Jane to her sisters describing domestic and ranch life. [Typescript copies included.]

Idora Z. Smith Guthrie diaries, 1871-1937, MC 201. Montana Historical Society Archives. The diaries of Idora Z. Smith Guthrie are a day-by-day account of her life, friends, family, activities, education, teaching career, domestic work, placer mining and homesteading experiences, sales career, etc. The diaries describe the social life and customs of rural New York, Helena, and the Marysville area and make note of events happening all over the world such as the Chicago fire and the death of President McKinley. Some of the volumes contain other information such as a listing of letters Idora Guthrie wrote and sent, her expenditures for stamps and church donations, etc. Two unidentified diaries (1871, 1872) are in the collection and discuss life in rural New York, social outings, farm labors, etc. There is also a file of clippings (undated) sent to or kept by Idora Guthrie.

Inez Allen Robson reminiscence, 1866, SC 1681. Montana Historical Society Archives. Inez Robson reminisces about the Zaddock Mann Allen family’s migration from Iowa to Montana Territory in 1866; their years in Jefferson City, Unionville, Silver Star, Harrison, Pony, and Three Forks; and Inez’s married life in Livingston and Whitehall. [Told to her son Ira Robson in 1938. Includes a forward and some annotations by Donald W. Fraser.]

Jane T. Baldwin Poore reminiscence, 1878-1900, SC 661. Montana Historical Society Archives. Jane Poore (b. 1846) was a Boulder, Montana, resident. Her reminiscence (c. 1934), entitled “A Baptist Pioneer in Montana,” describes traveling to Montana from England in 1878; her life in Boulder; and her efforts to establish a Baptist church there.

Jennie Taylor reminiscence, 1880-1889, SC 833. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection consists of a typescript reminiscence (1946) based on oral testimony given by Jennie Taylor to her daughter, Mrs. LeRoy Anderson. Jennie Taylor discusses her life in Texas; arrival in Montana; and her life at Sun River Crossing during the 1880s. The interview took place on Mrs. Taylor’s ranch in Cascade, Montana.

Josephine McCrellis Baily letter, 1890, SC 374. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection consists of a letter by Josephine to Sarah Kee, describing ranch life in Lima, Montana, and inviting Sarah to come to Montana as a private teacher.

Julia Brady correspondence, 1895, SC 1695. Montana Historical Society Archives. In a letter to her aunt, Mrs. J. Walls of Aspen, Colorado, Julia describes a mine fire in Basin that put many of Basin’s miners out of work and spread to the surrounding hills.

Julia Walker Fisk records, 1885, SC 694. Montana Historical Society Archives. Julia Fisk was the wife of Daniel Fisk, a partner in the Fisk Brothers firm, publishers of the Helena Herold. This collection consists of a deed conveying several Helena, Montana Territory, city lots to Julia Fisk from her uncle, James G. Blaine.

Kathleen Smith Alcorn writing, 1863-1865, SC 1439. Montana Historical Society Archives. In a manuscript entitled “Mortimer and Susan’s Trip to Montana,” Kathleen, a Michigan resident, describes a trip from Missouri to Montana Territory made by her great-grandparents, Mortimer and Susan Park, in 1863. Kathleen recounts the journey by wagon to Helena, where Mortimer operated a general store until 1865. Also included are entries from the Gilbert Benedict diary (1864) concerning life in the early Helena area.

Lacy Family papers 1878-1958, SC 2139. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Lacy family had a ranch in the Moiese Valley, Montana. This collection consists of photocopies of two reminiscences: “My Eighty Years” (1958) by Earnest E. Lacy, and “Lou’s Story” (undated) concerning Earnest’s wife, Lula Asa Murphy Armstrong Lacy, written by Ruth Lacy Moore and Robert R. Lacy. Their reminiscences describe growing up in Missouri and Indiana, and life on the ranch in Moiese Valley. [RESTRICTION: no commercial use of collection before 2020; no copying of “Lou’s Story” for use outside of MHS without author’s consent].

Lady Kathleen Lindsay papers, 1895-1897, SC 1692. Montana Historical Society Archives. Kathleen Lindsay and her husband Walter Lindsay were Anglo-Irish aristocrats and Miles City, Montana, horse ranchers. This collection includes Lady Lindsay’s reminiscences of life on their ranch; and a clipping (September 1895) describing the Custer County Fair. [47 photographs are in Photo Archives. (PAc81-32).]

Laura C. Ballou reminiscence, 1899, SC 388. Montana Historical Society Archives. Laura Ballou was a Helena, Montana Territory, schoolteacher. Her reminiscence discusses the Helena school system from 1877 to 1885, and some of the people she knew during that period.

Lillian E. H. Culver papers, 1890-1931, SC 334. Montana Historical Society Archives. Lillian Culver was a Centennial Valley, Montana, farm wife. This collection includes correspondence, financial records, and miscellany. A subgroup contains some incoming letters and financial records for her husband, William N. Culver.

Lillian M. Miller reminiscence, 1892-1909, SC 1852. Montana Historical Society Archives. Lillian Miller’s reminiscence (ca. 1968) describes her family’s life on the Miller Brothers sheep ranch near Chinook, Montana, from 1892 to 1909; and comments on Chinook area history.

Linda Pyle Sizer reminiscence, undated, SC 103. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection contains two reminiscences: one entitled “To the States by Steamboat in 1880” describes her steamboat trip down the Missouri River to Mandan, and then by train to Kansas City and stagecoach to a small town in Missouri; the second tells of her great-uncle Billy Patterson.

Lou Stocking Stewart reminiscence, undated, SC 795. Montana Historical Society Archives. Lou’s reminiscence describes her trip up the Missouri River on the steamboat Red Cloud in 1880.

Lucia Darling papers, 1863-1942, SC 145; Microfilm 124a. Lucia Darling was the niece of Montana’s first territorial governor, Sidney Edgerton, and one of the territory’s first schoolteachers. This collection consists of a diary (June 1-September 1863) covering her overland trip to Montana with Edgerton’s family. Also included are a reminiscence entitled “The First School in Montana”; reports she wrote as lady principal of Berea College; and a mining claim in the Bannack Mining District. [Diary same as MF 124a. Reminiscence published in Contributions to the Montana Historical Society, volume 5, pgs. 187-197. Partial typescripts included.]

Lucy Lowell Rogers papers, 1858-1939, SC 1703. Montana Historical Society Archives. Lucy Rogers lived in Dover, Maine. This collection (1858-1939) consists of 32 incoming letters, the majority of which are from brothers William H. Lowell and Daniel B. Lowell written during their Civil War service with a Maine regiment. The collection also contains two letters (1886) to Lucy’s daughter, Ada Rogers of Helena, Montana Territory, from her fiancé, P. R. Cram of Butte. Also included are newspaper clippings and ephemera.

Lucy Stocking diary, 1871-1882, SC 142. Montana Historical Society Archives. Lucy Stocking was the mother of Winfield Scott Stocking, a pioneer rancher in the Teton River area, Montana. Her diary (1871-1881) describes a steamboat trip up the Missouri River; life on her son’s ranch; and her return to Chicago. [Original diary at MSU.]

Madison County Federated Women’s Club writings, 1925-1931, SC 1382. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Madison County Federated Women’s Club was formed to compile the history of Madison County, Montana. Melvina J. Lott headed up the project and did much of the writing. Other writers included Frances Albright, Eunice M. Holbert, Mrs. G. W. Rightenour, Florence E. Jeffers, Laviga Noble Scheytt, Mrs. Henry M. Rundell, Eva Moger, and Hester Carmin. Included are histories of many of the communities in the county as well as a variety of topics. Most of the writings reflect the period from 1863 to the 1920s.

Margaret Sieben Hibbard interview, 1968, SC 1663. Montana Historical Society Archives. Margaret Sieben Hibbard, a Helena, Montana, resident discusses her collection of historic vehicles, including Marcus Daly’s show buggy, Frank S. Lusk’s Landau, and C. A. Broadwater’s sleigh. She also discusses her discovery and purchase of the trap once owned by Lillie Aston, first madam of “The Castle,” and prostitution in Helena. [Typed transcript of taped interview, December 1968.]

Marianne McWethey Holding reminiscence, 1878-1925, SC 1929. Montana Historical Society Archives. Marianne McWethey Holding traveled to Montana Territory in 1878, and settled in the Prickly Pear Valley near Helena. Her reminiscence (written in 1925 and revised in 1934) describes her trip to Montana Territory, her life on the family homestead, the birth and death of her children, and other events. An edited version was published by the family.

Marion Truitt Eltonhead reminiscence, 1919, SC 664. Montana Historical Society Archives. Marion Eltonhead traveled to Cooke City, Montana Territory, in 1880 with her husband and a party of investors. Her reminiscence details these travels and gives commentary on Virginia City, Bozeman, Fort Ellis, Yellowstone National Park, and other locations visited by the party.

Martha Ann Freeman Roe diary, 1864, SC 1377. Montana Historical Society Archives. Martha Roe, a resident of Grinnell, Iowa, traveled with her husband, Isaac Roe, from Grinnell to Bannack, Montana Territory, by wagon following the Lander Cut-off in 1864. This collection consists of two typed transcripts of her diary (May 4-September 8, 1864) detailing her journey. One transcript was done by her grandson Lester Burket, and the other by Harold E. Blinn. [Original diary is at Montana State University Special Collections, Bozeman.]

Martha Edgerton Plassmann papers, 1863-1939, MC 78. Montana Historical Society Archives. Martha arrived in Bannack with her parents, Sidney and Mary Edgerton, in 1863, but returned to Ohio in 1865. In 1876 she married Herbert Percy Rolfe. Rolfe was the principal of the Helena, Montana, schools, a lawyer in Fort Benton, and editor of the Great Falls Leader. When Rolfe died in 1895, Martha assumed the editorship of the paper. In 1895, she married the paper’s business manager, Theodore Plassmann, who died later that same year. Over the years, Martha undertook a series of business ventures, though none were very successful. Her collection consists of her autobiography and over 500 historical articles, written during the 1920s and 1930s. The articles, based on her own memories and on research, cover a wide range of topics, including fur trappers, explorers, and vigilantes.

Martha Ellen Fox Pike reminiscence, 1881-1909, SC 641. Montana Historical Society Archives. Martha Fox’s reminiscence (undated) describes an overland journey in 1881 from Texas to New Mexico; her life in New Mexico, California, and Arizona; her trip to Montana in 1896; and her life in the mining camp of Sylvanite and the lumber town of Libby from 1897 to 1909.

Mary Boatman Townsend reminiscence, 1941-1949, SC 444. Montana Historical Society Archives. A Stevensville-area ranch wife, Mary reminisces about her early life; her trip to Montana in l865; her childhood in the Ruby Valley; and her life in Glendale, Dillon, and Stevensville.

Mary Crittenden Davidson reminiscence, 1902, SC 604. Montana Historical Society Archives. Mary Davidson was the daughter of Rev. L. B. Crittenden, founder of the Gallatin Valley Female Seminary. Mrs. Davidson served as principal of the school until her marriage. This collection consists of a reminiscence (1902) of the history and operation of the school from 1872 to 1877.

Mary Douglas Gibson reminiscence, 1880-1899, SC 1476. Montana Historical Society Archives. Mary Douglas Gibson discusses her parents and grandparents; her childhood in Stowe, Vermont, and later in Minneapolis, Minnesota; her marriage to Philip Gibson in 1882 and their trip up the Missouri on the Benton; and her life in Fort Benton, on a sheep ranch on Belt Creek, and in Great Falls in the 1880s and 1890s.

Mary E. Booth papers, 1861-1871, SC 1492. Montana Historical Society Archives. Mary’s reminiscence describes traveling with her father, Terrence McMurray, on horseback from Portland, Oregon, to St. Ignatius, Montana Territory, from l861 to l863. She also discusses moving to Mission Ranch, later known as Frenchtown in l864, and her life in Mission Ranch up to 1871, when she married Joseph Booth.

Mary E. Cook diary, 1868, SC 558. Montana Historical Society Archives. In her diary, Mary describes her trip by steamboat from St. Louis, Missouri, to Fort Benton, Montana Territory, and then by stagecoach to Helena.

Mary Hilger Dougherty reminiscence, [1933?]-1935, SC 602. Montana Historical Society Archives. Mary Dougherty (1861-1948) was the daughter of Nicolas Hilger, a rancher north of Helena, Montana, and the wife of Richard Dougherty. The collection consists of a typed reminiscence describing her family’s trip to Montana in 1867 and their early years in the Helena area. Also included is a photocopy of a longer reminiscence describing her father’s trip to Montana in 1864; her family’s trip west in 1867; the Helena fires of 1869 and 1874; the earthquake of 1872; the vigilantes; the construction of the Catholic Church in 1876; an overland journey to the west coast via the Mullan Trail; and other memories of Helena and her family’s ranch in the Prickly Pear Valley.

Mary Hunter Doane reminiscence, 1876-1878, SC 638. Montana Historical Society Archives. Mary Doane’s reminiscence discusses her experiences and education at St. Vincent’s Academy, Helena, Montana Territory.

Mary Johnstone Powers reminiscence, 1882-1947, SC 1288. Montana Historical Society Archives. Mary Powers’ remininscence, entitled “A Pioneer Woman’s Reminiscence,” describes her experiences in Minnesota and Kansas; her overland journey to Montana Territory in 1882; teaching in Chouteau County; and serving as school superintendent. [Talk given before the Corozon Club of Los Angeles, 1947.]

Mary L. Kelley reminiscence, 1864, SC 920. Montana Historical Society Archives. Mary L. Kelley was a Deer Lodge, Montana, resident and wife of pioneer placer miner R. S. Kelley. Her reminiscence (1920) describes her journey by wagon train from Kansas to Virginia City, Montana Territory, in 1864.

Mary Pauline Loberg Holter subgroup, Holter Family papers, 1861-1968, MC 80. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Holter family subgroups contain correspondence and other materials by and between various family members and provide information concerning not only the family’s business activities and investments, but also the growth and development of Helena and the vicinity. Of greatest interest to someone studying 19th-century women will be the subgroup for Anton M. Holter’s wife, Mary Pauline Loberg Holter, which covers the period 1872 to 1914.

Mary Stephenson records, 1817, SC 785. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection consists of manumission papers (July 20, 1817) by Mary Stephenson, of Harrison County, Kentucky, freeing her slave Polly and her four-year-old child.

Matilda Dalton Thibadeau papers, 1863-1864, SC 835. Montana Historical Society Archives. Matilda Thibadeau (b. 1843) was a resident of Bannack and Virginia City, Montana Territory, for a brief time in the 1860s. Her reminiscence (undated) describes her life in the territory and her memories of road agent Henry Plummer. Also included are three letters (1918) that discuss Plummer’s possible ancestry in Wisconsin.

Mattie T. Cramer papers, 1888-1958, MC 255. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection consists of correspondence (1894-1958), diaries (1888, 1895-1896), writings (undated), and miscellaneous financial records (1916, 1938-1946) of Mattie T. (Mathers) Cramer, a pioneer homesteader and newspaperwoman from Malta, Montana. The bulk of her papers consist of editorial and feature articles (undated) written for publication, and approximately 160 letters (1913-1915) written to her from all over the United States, requesting information on homesteading in Montana.

May G. Flanagan papers, 1952, SC 1236. Montana Historical Society Archives. May G. Flanagan was a Fort Benton and Great Falls, Montana, educator. This collection consists of correspondence regarding a project to mark the old Fort Benton to Helena stage road and typescripts of writings (undated) by May Flanagan regarding her childhood in Fort Benton, Montana Territory, including traveling by stage to Helena in 1886 and by steamboat to Bismarck, North Dakota, on the Eclipse the following year. She also discusses education, frontier homes and life, and the various residents of Fort Benton and Helena, including I. G. Baker. The collection also includes one article by May’s sister, Virginia E. Flanagan, about the day the St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Manitoba Railroad arrived in Fort Benton. The original typescripts in the collection were typed by, and in some cases edited by, Flanagan’s niece, Virginia Flanagan (Mrs. John C.) Harrison.

Menard Family papers, 1886-1935, Unprocessed Collection (A7:4-7). Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection of papers from the Menard family consists of correspondence (1916, 1930); financial records (1891-1935); land, naturalization, and other legal records (1896-1923); writings, in French (undated); and various certificates (1886-1931) of Israel and Philomene Menard, their children Raoul, Brondel, and Marie; and Marie’s husband, Arthur Stuart, and their son, Art Stuart Jr.

Minnie Stevenson Hughes letter, 1883-1889, SC 1797. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection contains a photocopy of a letter (1969) from Minnie Stevenson Hughes to Max Goodsill, publicist for Yellowstone Park Company, describing her family’s journey from Georgetown, Colorado, to Bozeman, Montana Territory, in 1883; their years in Bozeman (1883-1889); the establishment of Yellowstone National Park; and the Wylie Transportation Company, a park concessionaire.

Mollie Largent Hildebrandt papers, 1881-1916, SC 2044. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection consists of two diaries (1882-1886) written by Mollie (Mary) Largent Hildebrandt, which include a list of Largent family members and their birthdates, and a list of her schoolteachers, and also mentions the names of people living in the community of Sun River, Montana, and the surrounding area. The collection also includes a two-page reminiscence (undated) by John Largent; a letter (1881) written to John Largent by Clint Hildebrandt requesting his consent to marry his daughter Mollie; a ticket (1891) to the third annual ball of the I.O.O.F. Chestnut Valley Lodge in Cascade, Montana, purchased by Joe Hildebrandt; and newspaper clippings (1889-1916) regarding the Largent/Hildebrandt families and other residents of the Great Falls, Sun River, and Ulm area.

Mollie O’Keeffe school essay, 1883, SC 593. Montana Historical Society Archives. In her essay, “The Coming Railroad,” Missoula schoolgirl Mollie O’Keeffe expresses her opinions on the impact of the completion of the Northern Pacific Railroad through the territory in 1883. There is also a biographical sketch (1955) on Mollie O’Keeffe by John H. Toole, her grandson.

Montana Woman’s Christian Temperance Union records, 1883-1976, MC 160. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection contains records of the Montana WCTU. Included is interoffice correspondence (1936-1976), which contains letters of the National WCTU, the Montana WCTU, other states’ WCTU organizations, and local unions in Montana. Correspondents for the Montana WCTU include Mrs. W. C. Dawes, Mrs. H. E. Chappell, Bertha Rachel Palmer, Miriam Pease, Agatha Woods, Beatrice Kreis, Amanda Henricksen, Anna Reagan, Helena Mildred Clarke, Mabel Noble, Grace Thiebaud, Elizabeth S. Donahue, Cora Mae Boucher, Francis Lowe, and Mildred Carpenter. In addition there is correspondence with National WCTU field workers including Lily Grace Matteson, Dora Young, Sara Palmer, and Ida Underland.

Ruth Reser Gill reminiscence, 1880-1989, SC 1944. Montana Historical Society Archives. Ruth Reser Gill’s reminiscence, “Long Ago,” describes her mother’s memories of life at the Fort Belknap Agency in the 1880s; the opening of the reservation to white homesteading; the founding of the town of Chinook; and the changes in Chinook over the years.

Sadye Wolfe Drew reminiscence, undated, SC 1532. Montana Historical Society Archives. Sadye Drew (b. 1883) reminisces about her youth and early adulthood. Her family moved frequently, crossing and re-crossing the plains by wagon several times. Her father worked in homesteading, lumbering, and farm labor. Sadye did laundry work, housekeeping, stock tending, and various other jobs before marrying at sixteen years of age.

Sallie Davenport Davidson reminiscence, 1928, SC 606. Montana Historical Society Archives. Sallie Davidson’s reminiscence discusses her family’s steamboat trip to Montana Territory in 1865; life in Diamond City; her trips in Missouri to get schooling; and experiences as the wife of Helena, Montana, merchant A. J. Davidson.

Samuel Thomas Hauser papers, 1864-1914, MC 37. Montana Historical Society Archives. Samuel T. Hauser was a business and political pioneer in Montana Territory. His wife, Ellen Farrar Hauser, was one of the leading ladies of Montana society. The collection contains a subgroup for Ellen, which consists of correspondence (1873-1906), financial records (1865-1906), and legal documents (1879-1917).

Shipman Family papers, 1814-1989 bulk, 1841-1912, MC 274. Montana Historical Society Archives. Clark B. Shipman farmed in Vermont and New Jersey before traveling to Montana Territory with his son Henry in 1881. They homesteaded in the Lewistown area. Two of his daughters, Winifred and Gertrude, taught school in the area. Clark’s wife, Augusta, remained in the East with the rest of the children until 1890. The collection consists of correspondence (1841-1955) between various family members; diaries (1882-1908); and miscellaneous legal documents, financial record, and clippings. [The Shipmans were featured in the book Women in Waiting in the Westward Movement by Linda Peavy and Ursula Smith, Norman: University of Oklahoma, 1944.]

Sidney Edgerton Family papers, 1858-1959, MC 26. Montana Historical Society Archives. Sidney Edgerton was a chief justice (1863) and governor of Montana Territory (1863-1865). This collection (1859-1884) consists of general correspondence of the Edgerton family including letters written while crossing the plains, and later while living in Bannack, Montana Territory. Included in the correspondents are Sidney Edgerton, Mary Wright Edgerton, Martha “Mattie” Edgerton Rolfe, (Mary) Pauline Edgerton, Wright Prescott Edgerton, Lucia Aurora Darling, and others. Also included in Sidney’s papers are biographical material; legal documents, including a treaty with the Flatheads signed by Chief Victor; and a speech concerning slavery.

Stella Tanner Fowler reminiscence, 1881-1889, SC 1780. Montana Historical Society Archives. In her reminiscence (c. 1960), Stella Fowler discusses her childhood in the Bitterroot Valley of Montana from 1881 to 1889, and her mother’s efforts as a widow to raise six children.

Stephen C. Gilpatrick and Luella Gilpatrick reminiscence, 1915, SC 744. Montana Historical Society Archives. Stephen Collins Gilpatrick and Luella Fergus Gilpatrick were Helena, Montana, pioneers. Luella Gilpatrick’s reminiscence (1915, revised 1923) describes her trip across the plains to Montana Territory in 1864. Also included is a photocopy of a letter from James Fergus to Luella regarding the family history of her parents. Stephen Gilpatrick’s reminiscence (1923) describes his travel up the Missouri River by steamboat and his experiences as a miner.

[Mrs. W. H. Trask] Frank D. Brown papers, 1865-1932, SC 1388. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection includes incoming correspondence; a financial statement for the Pardee & McDonald Addition in Philipsburg; certificates of appointment into the United Confederate Veterans and the Eastern Montana Pioneers; miscellaneous writings; and a talk given by Mrs. W. H. Trask describing her early life in the Deer Lodge Valley.

Wiley and Ella Mountjoy papers, 1911-1942, SC 545. Montana Historical Society Archives. Wiley Mountjoy (b. 1854) was superintendent of the Montana State Orphans Home in Twin Bridges and a teacher at the College of Montana in Deer Lodge. Papers consist of a reminiscence by his wife, Ella Mountjoy, describing her life in various Montana communities from 1864 to 1896; and letters (1942) from the Mountjoys to Merrill Burlingame describing the establishment of the College of Montana and Mountjoy’s work there.

William Sturgis papers, 1862-1867, SC 809. Montana Historical Society Archives. William Sturgis was a Bannack and Beaverhead Valley, Montana Territory, sawmill operator. The collection consists of letters (1862, 1863, 1867) to Sturgis in Bannack from his wife, Rosanna, and his daughter, Ann, describing conditions in Minnesota and their trip by steamboat to Montana in 1867; and affidavits (1866) verifying that Sturgis did work on the Red Rock and Beaverhead Canyon Road.

Mrs. W. M. Lewis diary, undated, SC 477. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection consists of a diary (January 1-June 29, 1891) kept by Mrs. W. M. Lewis, a ranch woman living in the Sheridan, Montana, area. Her diary includes references to daily events of ranch life, names of people, recipes, and weather.







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