Montanans at Work Oral History Project—Bibliography

This bibliography includes oral histories from the Montana Historical Society’s Montanans at Work Oral History Project. Statewide in scope, this oral history project was the first implemented by the Montana Historical Society. Nearly 400 interviews were conducted with Montanans who lived and worked in the state from 1910 to 1945. The project focused on three major occupational areas that dominated Montana’s economy during this period: mining, agriculture, and forest products. Interviews conducted with people in auxiliary occupations—including merchants, logging camp cooks, teachers, cattle buyers, and railroad workers—augment the recollections of sheepherders, ranch wives, miners, and sawyers. This collection reveals the interplay between livelihood and family life, the formation of public and private identities, and the impact of occupation on definitions of community. Where possible, audio format is noted. The collection is divided between oral histories that have been transcribed and those that have not. Where possible, length of typed transcription is noted.

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Transcribed:

Bernice Johnson Kingsbury interview, 1982 September 17. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 351). Montana Historical Society. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 10 min.) 57-page transcript. Topics include growing up near Dupuyer; sheep ranching in Pondera County; operating a beauty shop in Valier; serving as a Democratic Party committeewoman; and running as a legislative candidate in the 1940s.

Edie Bennett interview, 1981 December 2. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 218). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 20 min.) 43-page transcript. Topics include her childhood in Somers; her thirteen-year employment as that town’s postmistress; and her observations of the Somers community.

Edna G. Cox McCann interview, 1983 May 5. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 655). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 46-page transcript. Topics include her family’s homestead near Trout Creek; trapping; childhood chores; the forest fires of 1910; berry picking; volunteer work during World War I; and prospecting.

Faye Anderson interview, 1982 January 5. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 229). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 37-page transcript. Topics include her education and teaching experiences in Bearcreek and Billings, and the effects of severe economic times on children.

Harriett Olson Harris interview, 1982 February 3. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 235). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 38-page transcript. Topics include her homestead experiences near Winifred, ca. 1910-1920; teaching school in Cut Bank; life in Great Falls during the 1930s Depression and World War II; and her work in Shandeling’s Dress Store.

John Screnar and Agnes Richardson Screnar interview, 1983 January 24. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 456). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 36-page transcript. Topics include Agnes Screnar’s community life and businesses in East Helena, ca. 1910-1950, especially Richardson’s Drug Store; John Screnar’s work at the ASARCO smelter in East Helena from 1925 to 1972; industrial safety; and the effects of the smelter on the local economy.

Kate Ladner interview, 1981 August 6. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 183). Montana Historical Society. (1 hr.) 48-page transcript. Topics include homesteading and sheep ranching in Teton County; German immigration to Montana in the 1890s; the processing and marketing of wool; and her girlhood experiences on a sheep ranch near Choteau.

Lillian Helena Mattson Lampi interview, 1982 June 23. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 303). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 33-page transcript. Topics include the Finnish community in Red Lodge; her work in the Pollard Hotel dining room; and her jobs with Bloom and Company in Red Lodge.

Lillian Jarussi and Loretta Jarussi interview, 1982 September 24. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 363). Montana Historical Society. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 20 min.) 42-page transcript. Topics include their teaching experiences in rural schools in Stillwater and Valley Counties; the Italian community in Red Lodge; the impacts of the Depression and World War II on the area; Spanish influenza epidemics and lice infestation; and the 1943 Smith Mine disaster.

Mary Ann Smith and Frances Smith Rigler interview, 1984 June 13. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 457). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 40 min.) 68-page transcript. Topics include the businesses, ethnic groups, and community life of East Helena from 1910 to 1945. Mary Ann Smith reflects on her work at Smith’s Bar from 1919 to the 1970s. Frances Rigler describes her work cleaning offices at the ASARCO smelter complex in East Helena.

Mary Stephenson interview, 1981 October 29. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 209). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 40-page transcript. Topics include homesteading with her husband in McCone County in 1910; the history of Redwater; and sheep ranching with her son Sowler Stephenson during the 1930s and 1940s.

Mary Zanto interview, 1982 April 28. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 274). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 50-page transcript. Topics include her childhood in the Stockett-Eden area of Cascade County and her work as a farm wife in the Highwood-Shonkin area of Chouteau County.

“Montana Vera” Lay Buening interview, 1982 September 22. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 358). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 40 min.) 35-page transcript. Topics include working on ranches and in households in Carbon County from 1928 to 1935; her performing career as Montana Vera; and the community of Red Lodge from1935 to 1945.

Myrtle Mills Roundtree interview, 1983 May 2. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 524). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 40 min.) 40-page transcript. 4-page summary. Topics include her work sewing sacks at the Ideal Cement Company plant in Trident during World War II; family life; her disillusionment with farming; and raising turkeys.

Nazzareno Golfi and Adele Golfi interview, 1982 September 23. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 360). 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 17-page transcript. 2-page summary. Topics include Nazzareno’s work as a coal miner in Red Lodge and Bearcreek from 1917 to the 1940s, Adele’s work at Natali’s Imperio Mercantile in Bearcreek during the 1930s; the Italian American community; and the 1943 Smith Mine disaster.

Roy Rue and Helen Dahl Rue interview, 1982 October 23. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 408). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 31-page transcript. 3-page summary. Topics include Plentywood in the 1930s and 1940s; area businesses; and Communist activities in northeastern Montana. Roy Rue comments on operations of the Sheridan Milling Company and the Reba Lumber Company. Helen Rue talks of her work for the Plentywood Herald during the 1940s.

Senia Kallio interview, 1982 September 22. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 357). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 40 min.) 38-page transcript. Topics include her work experiences in Red Lodge from 1920 to 1968, particularly at the Kallio Sauna and Bathhouse, at the Red Lodge Cannery, and at the Variety Store; and the Finnish community in Red Lodge.

Thelma Marie Dobson Czyzeski interview, 1982 May 21. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 285). Montana Historical Society. 3 audio tapes (3 hr.) 88-page transcript. Topics include the Dobson family; ranching along the Musselshell River near Cat Creek; ranch experiences in Phillips County; nursing in Independence, Missouri, and in Malta and Zortman, Montana; and the hardships and struggles of supporting a family from the 1930s into the 1960s.

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Not Transcribed (may include a typed summary):

Abigail Mitton interview, 1984 September 5. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 678). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 10 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include her experiences in the Flathead Valley from 1900 to 1922, and working for the J.C. Penney store in Kalispell, ca. 1910-1920.

Agnes E. Hannon Cooper interview, 1982 October 5. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 424). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 10 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include teaching in Ravalli County schools; her duties as Ravalli County superintendent of schools from 1948 to 1958; and communities in the Bitterroot Valley.

Agnes Jelinek interview, 1982 April 30. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 271). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 20 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her family’s migration from Europe to Coffee Creek, Fergus County, in 1906; her Czechoslovakian background; and her homesteading and farming experiences.

Agnes Stefovich Nesheim interview, 1982 May 14. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 283). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include growing up on a farm west of Roundup during the 1920s; her husband’s work in the Roundup coal mines; and her work in the local telephone company office.

Akleen Kirchman Kennedy interview, 1982 September 8. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 373). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (50 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include business, ranch, and community life in the Fishtail area from about 1910 to the 1940s; flour mills; and the operation of the Kennedy family’s dry-goods store in Fishtail.

Alice Kinzel interview, 1983 March 12. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 497). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (50 min.) 1-page summary. Topics include ranch life on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation from 1900 to 1950 and her life as the wife of a trail driver from Texas.

Alice Salveson Fjell interview, 1983 April 13. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 507). 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 1-page summary. Topics include ranching in the Tongue River Valley in Rosebud County from the 1920s to the 1940s and Norwegian Americans.

Alice Schwenger Kirch interview, 1982 September 8. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 375). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (45 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include life on her parents’ ranch in Carbon County, ca. 1910-1920, and ranching with her husband near Absarokee from the 1920s to the 1940s.

Anita Stewart Watson and Marshall Watson interview, 1983 June 21. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 548). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 5 min.) 3-page summary. Anita Watson discusses her youth in Butte during the 1920s. Marshall Watson discusses his work on ranches in Blaine County and in Idaho and his duties as a ditch rider on the Milk River Irrigation Project during the 1930s.

Anna Boe Dahl interview, 1982 October 20 and 22. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 406). Montana Historical Society. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 15 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include her husband Andrew Dahl’s efforts to organize Rural Electrification Associations (REA) in northeastern Montana; his REA involvement on local, state, and national levels; and his experiences and work with the Montana Farmers Union from the 1920s into the 1940s.

Anna Fletcher interview, 1981 October 26. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 204). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 7-page summary. Topics include growing up on a farm near Glendive; her education; teaching in rural schools in eastern Montana; her job in a Spokane, Washington, factory during World War II; her duties as county superintendent of schools; and cattle ranching in Dawson County.

Anna Frieluch Juvan interview, 1982 September 28. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 389). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 5-page summary. Topics include her childhood on the family farm in Park County; working and living in the Red Lodge area during the 1920s; her marriage; operating a ranch and a dairy in Park County from 1930 to 1964; and her Yugoslavian ancestry.

Anne Needham interview, 1981 December 1. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 232). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 20 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include her education in Missoula and Winnett schools; her work as a journalist; her college and teaching experiences; organizing the Parent-Teachers Association (PTA) in Great Falls; and her husband’s job as a safety inspector for the Anaconda Company.

Anne Sloan interview, 1982 July 28. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 317). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (55 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her childhood in Butte; her marriage to Vern Sloan; and her husband’s operation of sawmills in the Thompson Falls area.

Arthur Jensen and Hazel Jensen interview, 1982 October 19. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 432). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include Arthur Jensen’s work as a signal operator for the Northern Pacific Railway in eastern Montana, ca. 1910-1930; his job as a theater operator in Superior during the 1930s; and the roles of local industry and the Democratic Party in Mineral County. Hazel Jensen discusses irrigated agriculture in Treasure County, ca. 1910-1940; her work as a schoolteacher; Hispanic Americans; and sugar beets.

Bessie Kerlee Monroe interview, 1982 September 29. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 425). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include the history of the Bitterroot Valley; her work as a journalist on several area newspapers, including the Western News and the Ravalli Republic; and her struggles as a widow raising six children.

Bessie Towey Mulhern interview, 1981 November 23. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 213). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 40 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include emigrating from Ireland; managing the Towey Hotel in Butte; and living in Butte during and after World War II.

Betty Wilson Vimont Carter and Harvey Carter interview, 1983 March 20. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 503). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 5 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include her farm life; her involvement with 4-H and with Home Demonstration Clubs; operating the Fair Price Grocery Store in Miles City; working as a cook; and his farming in Custer and Rosebud Counties.

Bill Korell and Ruth Gardner Korell interview, 1982 July 20. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 312). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include their grocery business in Utica and the Korell Guest Ranch in the Judith Basin. Bill Korell tells of his childhood in Utica, ca. 1910-1920. Ruth Korell discusses her childhood in the community of Straw.

Birdie Lower interview, 1983 May 11. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 529). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 6-page summary. Topics include her work as an oiler in the cooler of the Ideal Cement Plant in Trident during World War II and her childhood in Willow Creek during the 1930s.

Blanche McManus interview, 1982 September 14. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 352). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 1-page summary. Topics include teaching in rural schools in Lincoln County; teaching in Harlem and Sunburst; and her work in logging camps.

Christina Habel Mullins interview, 1982 February 19. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 237). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include the early history of Marysville and her childhood there; her father’s mining work; and Thomas Cruse and his daughter Mamie.

Daniel Hilger, Bryan Hilger, and Amelia F. “Babe” Hilger interview, 1983 November 8. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 669). Montana Historical Society. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 35 min.) 5-page summary. Topics include the history and operation of the Hilger Ranch north of Helena; the introduction of purebred Hereford cattle to their herd; and the evolution of haying techniques and irrigation methods.

Doris Vickers Novark interview, 1982 August 25. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 347). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (45 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include community life in Hardin from 1913 to 1980; various local organizations; Hardin businesses and industries; and her work as a housewife.

Dorothy Benbow Ragsdale interview, 1982 June 14. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 394). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (45 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include the life of her inventor-miner father, Thomas C. Benbow, and the Benbow chromium mine on Rock Creek near Columbus, in Stillwater County.

Dorothy Bruner Floerchinger interview, 1984 April 10. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 673). Montana Historical Society. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 40 min.) 5-page summary. Topics include farming in Pondera County from 1913 to the 1950s; her participation in the Montana Farmers Union; the role of women in developing communities; the importance of such organizations as Home Demonstration Clubs, the Conrad Women’s Club, and the Montana Farmers Union cooperatives; and the Montana Study.

Dorothy Cartwright Johnston interview, 1983 May 3. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 350). Montana Historical Society. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 10 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include her experiences on a ranch in Meagher County from 1894 to 1932; her work as the city clerk of White Sulphur Springs from 1932 to 1957; the 1930s Depression; and her jobs as a waitress, cook, and musician at the Rainbow Cafe and Bar in White Sulphur Springs.

Douglas Glenmore and Josephine Glenmore interview, 1983 March 15. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 496). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 50 min.) 1-page summary. Topics include life on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation from the 1920s to the 1940s; domestic crafts; and his work as a cowboy.

Edith Halliday Hammerstrom interview, 1983 February 1. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 466). Montana Historical Society. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 30 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include East Helena, Montana, from 1905 to the 1970s; her involvement with the East Helena Women’s Club; teaching in Rosebud during the 1920s; and community life in Helena, ca. 1910-1930s.

Edna Hudson Lannen interview, 1982 September 9. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 374). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include her experiences ranching in Stillwater County from about 1910 to the 1940s and the impact of the 1930s Depression on the ranch.

Edna M. Olsen Gillespie interview, 1983 May 12. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 532). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 50 min.) 5-page summary. Topics include operating a Trident hotel and boardinghouse with her mother, Eva Lena Burrell Olsen, during the 1920s; the towns of Trident and Logan from the 1920s to the 1940s; and the Ideal Cement Company.

Edna Patterson interview, 1981 October 26 and 29. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 205). Montana Historical Society. 6 tapes (6 hr.) 9-page summary. Topics include homesteading in Dawson County; teaching; working odd jobs; her marriage to Byard Patterson; her husband’s auto-body shop; living in Intake; and operating the first motel in Glendive.

Eleanor Sullivan Starina interview, 1982 August 25. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 348). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include ranch life near Kirby, Big Horn County; her work as a schoolteacher; and her duties as superintendent of Big Horn County schools.

Elmen H. Torgrimson and Leone Torgrimson interview, 1982 September 10. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 376). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (50 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include their operation of a grocery store and a movie theater in Absarokee from 1923 to 1940.

Elsie Brawner Eyman interview, 1982 September 28. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 390). Montana Historical Society. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 30 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include her work as a teacher in Park County during the 1920s; her experiences as a ranch wife from 1927 to the 1950s; and her father Robert Brawner’s dairy business in Yellowstone National Park.

Emma L. Rogers interview, 1982 September 15. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 489). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include the mining community of Lehigh from 1917 to 1926; her farming experiences near Windham between 1937 and 1947; the Depression; and Austrian Americans.

Estella Loveall Mateka interview, 1983 November 17. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 723). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hrs.) 4-page summary. Topics include the community of Columbia Falls from 1900 to 1950; local business; fraternal lodges; area churches; transportation; community celebrations; health care; town law enforcement; and her operation of the People’s Meat Market from 1925 to 1952.

Ethel Widner interview, 1982 July 29. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 318). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (55 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her childhood; her marriage to Bill Widner, a truck driver for several logging companies; and her life in Thompson Falls.

Evelyn Rutherford Marks interview, 1983 February 2. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 464). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 45 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include life in Clancy from 1924 to 1982; ranching near Clancy; and her experiences teaching school in Garfield County and in Clancy.

Faye Hoven interview, 1982 March 30. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 252). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 50 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include her parents’ homestead south of Winnett before 1920; farming and ranching at Hobson from the 1920s into the 1950s; and family and ranch life.

Fern Harshman interview, 1982 June 7. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 293). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 40 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include her career as an Avon cosmetics dealer in the Chinook area from the early 1930s into the 1980s, and changes in the Chinook community during that time.

Florence McDonald Smith interview, 1982 April 22. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 265). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 35 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include life on the Flathead Indian Reservation in western Montana; cooking for restaurants and for the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) during the 1930s; her marriage to Howard Smith; and changes on the reservation in the 1920s and 1930s.

Florence Miller Wells interview, 1982 August 21. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 341). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 45 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include cattle ranching in Big Horn County and teaching in Lodge Grass.

Florence “Peggy” Messner interview, 1982 November 20. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 413). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include businesses in Anaconda, ca. 1910-1930; the Anaconda Company smelter in Anaconda; and her work as a reporter for the Anaconda Standard during the 1920s.

Florence Sullivan Hofland interview, 1982 December 16. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 449). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include her father Florence Aloysius Sullivan’s operation of the Marias Slope Ranch, ca. 1910-1920; her cattle ranching experiences from the 1920s to the 1950s; and the impact of the petroleum industry on Toole County.

George Everett Oyler and Helen Oyler interview, 1983 April 29. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 526). Montana Historical Society. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 25 min.) 6-page summary. Helen Oyler discusses the community of Trident.

Georgianna Crouse Andersen interview, 1982 September 19. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 354). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 1-page summary. Topics include her life as a sheep rancher’s wife in Beaverhead County; cooking for ranch hands and for sheep-shearing crews; and the Ames Ranch.

Georgie Olsen Wellhouser interview, 1983 May 12. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 531). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 20 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include her experiences growing up in the Logan area; Trident from 1925 to 1940, particularly its neighborhoods and personalities; Japanese Americans; and the Ideal Cement Company in Trident.

Gladys Knowles interview, 1982 July 21. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 314). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (45 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include ranching in Big Horn County and the Republican Party.

Gladys Miller Haglund interview, 1982 December 15. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 448). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (45 min.) 1-page summary. Topics include her father James Miller’s sheep ranching operation east of Cut Bank, ca. 1910-1920; and her experiences farming with her husband, Serem Haglund, during the 1940s.

Gladys Olson Andersen interview, 1982 December 16. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 419). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 40 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include farming with her husband, A. P. Andersen, near Ulm, Cascade County, ca. 1910-1950; and the community of Ulm.

Gladys Philbrick Little interview, 1982 September 1. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 328). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 3-page summary. Topics include life in the community of Castle during the early1900s; the town of Martinsdale from 1910 to1914; her work on a Meagher County sheep ranch; her employment at the Kalispell Mercantile; community activities in Kalispell from 1928 to 1945; prostitution in Castle; and KKK activities in Kalispell.

Grace Cunningham interview, 1982 March 11. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 244). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 38 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include her work as a silent-film piano accompanist in Butte theaters during the late 1920s. Included is a brief segment of the piano theme for the film What Price Glory?

Grace Thompson Bricker interview, 1982 September 7. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 371). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include ranch life in Stillwater County, ca. 1910-1930; and the important roles played by rural schools, churches, and community organizations in rural settlements.

Gulnare Lutts interview, 1982 August 7. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 330 1 audio tape (50 min.) 1-page summary. Topics include homesteading near Ollie, in Fallon County, ca. 1910-1930s; farmers’ hardships; and community life in Ollie.

Harold Lehfeldt and Anna Soper Lehfeldt interview, 1983 April 18. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 501). Montana Historical Society. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 25 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include their sheep ranching operation in Golden County, near Lavina, from 1919 to the 1980s; local sheepherders; sheep-shearing techniques; and marketing wool.

Hazel Anderson Klotzbuecher interview, 1982 June 9. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 295). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 50 min.) 5-page summary. Topics include her teaching career in Montana and Canada from the 1920s into the 1930s; homesteading in northern Blaine County, ca. 1910-1920; and working in a salmon cannery in Alaska.

Hazel Beadle Karkanen interview, 1982 September 14. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 392). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 20 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include community life in Milltown from 1910 to 1950; her work as a teacher and a librarian in Milltown; and the history of the Karkanen Public Library in Milltown.

Helen Hobbs Buckley interview, 1983 April 12. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 511). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 1-page summary. Topics include teaching in the Decker, Montana, area during the 1930s and 1940s.

Helen Shute Raymond interview, 1981 October 9. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 196). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 45 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include bootlegging in Butte during the 1920s; operating the Ruby Hotel and a chicken-dinner house in Sheridan in 1927; managing the Barkell Hot Springs in Silver Star in the early 1930s; and running the tavern and several mines in Virginia City from 1934 until 1946.

Helen Vickroy Seright interview, 1982 April 27. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 269). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 3-page summary. Topics include the family farm near Moore, Montana; wheat farming with her husband in Montague; and local activities of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) during the 1930s.

Howard Billing and Teresa Haughian Billing interview, 1983 March 19. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 502). Montana Historical Society. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 40 min.) 5-page summary. Teresa Billing discusses her teaching experiences near Brockway; sheep ranching with her husband, Howard, between 1920 and 1950; and agricultural life in Rosebud, Garfield, and Custer Counties.

Hugo Kenck and Margaret McMann Kenck interview, 1982 December 8. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 417). Montana Historical Society. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 10 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include music teachers, musical groups, and performers in Butte from 1900 to 1940; Butte’s ethnic groups and neighborhoods; the city’s German clubs; the California Brewery; and the Miner’s Bank. Hugo Kenck may have been the first man to sing over the radio in Montana (1915).

Idoniea Golding Duntley interview, 1982 April 28. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 273). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 25 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include homesteading near Fort Benton, Chouteau County; her restaurant work in Geraldine and Great Falls; and her duties as a matron and a cook at the Geraldine High School dormitory.

Irma McInerny interview, 1982 May 24. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 287). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 4-page summary. Topics include life on her parents’ homestead north of Nashua from 1915 to 1932; teaching in rural schools in Valley County during the 1930s; and her work as deputy superintendent of Valley County schools from the 1940s into the 1950s.

Isabella Mogstad interview, 1982 March 17. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 248). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include homesteading near Fort Benton, ca. 1910-1930; her family’s move to Geraldine; life on the farm; and her work as a wife and mother of five children.

James Patten and Phyllis McLeod Patten interview, 1983 February 9. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 460). Montana Historical Society. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 30 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include James’s work as a miner in Philipsburg and Butte from 1907 to the 1950s and the workings of several Philipsburg-area silver, copper, and manganese mines. Phyllis Patten discusses the community of Philipsburg, ca. 1910-1920.

Jane Phillips interview, 1982 January 11. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 224). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 3-page summary. Topics include the history of Elkhorn; her emigration from England and her arrival in Helena; dressmaking; and the creation and operation of the Phillips Dairy.

Jessie Wilhoit Mola interview, 1984 April 25. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 675). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include the mining town of Marysville from 1917 to 1945; her work as the Marysville postmistress from 1931 to 1944; and her experiences as a telephone operator in Helena during the 1920s.

Joe Andriolo and Jennie Andriolo interview, 1983 April 11. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 500). Montana Historical Society. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 40 min.) 6-page summary. Topics include his work at the Ideal Cement Company plant in Trident from 1939 to the 1960s; the history and operations of the plant; 1946 union-organizing efforts; and the United Cement, Lime, Gypsum and Allied Workers International Union. Jennie Andriolo discusses the town of Trident; labor-management relations at the Ideal Cement Company; the Trident school; and life in Gallatin County.

John A. McClellen and Genevieve LaForge McClellen interview, 1982 September 23. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 391). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 55 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include local businesses, neighborhoods, social life, and customs in Bonner from the 1920s to the 1960s; his work as an accountant for the Anaconda Company’s lumber operation in Bonner; and the Blackfoot Fire Protection Association.

Josephine Weiss Casey interview, 1983 March 23. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 486). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include her family; the 1918 Spanish influenza epidemic; the 1930s polio epidemic; Christmas toys; early grocers in Anaconda; and the history and operation of the Weiss Grocery in Anaconda.

Judy Holmes interview, 1982 July 28. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 385). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 3-page summary. Topics include cattle ranching near Decker; English traditions; and ranch life.

Katie M. Adams interview, 1983 April 5. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 492). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include homesteading and farming in northern Hill County, near the U.S.-Canada border from 1912 to the 1950s.

Kristina Fallan interview, 1981 September 22. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 195). Montana Historical Society. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 30 min.) 7-page summary. Topics include her emigration from Norway; acquiring a homestead at age twenty-one; ranching; wheat and flax farming; marrying Ole Fallan; and her feelings of patriotism.

Lenore T. McCollum interview, 1982 September 27. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 388). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 35 min.) 1-page summary. Topics include her childhood in Twin Bridges; the lumberyards at Twin Bridges; teaching school in Dillon; and her grandfather J. F. Bishop’s sheep ranch in Beaverhead County.

Liane R. McGuire interview, 1982 September 26. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 491). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 35 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her childhood experiences on her parents’ homestead near Moore, ca. 1910-1920; and her work with her husband, Robert McGuire, teaching in the Fort Kipp School on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation during the 1930s.

Lillian Beamish interview, 1982 July 29. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 319). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 40 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include her childhood in Granite and Sanders Counties; farming with her husband near Plains; and working at the post office and at the general store in Paradise.

Lillian Nelson Kitzenberg interview, 1982 October 24. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 409). Montana Historical Society. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 50 min.) 5-page summary. Topics include the operation of Kitzenberg’s Store in Plentywood from 1921 to 1980; her work at her father Ted Nelson’s racket (five-and-dime) store in Dooley, ca. 1910-1920; and the impact of the 1930s Depression on the area.

Lorene Kirschten interview, 1982 August 1. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 334). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include homesteading east of Baker and her work as a school librarian in Baker.

Lottie Hufford Price interview, 1982 September 8. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 372). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 40 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include sheep raising and ranch life in Stillwater County, ca. 1910-1930.

Lucille Webster Bridges interview, 1982 July 15. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 309). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 50 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include her jobs as a child on her father’s cattle ranch near Shawmut; working the same ranch as an adult with her husband, Joe Bridges; and the nearby Winnecook Ranch.

Lura Gessaman interview, 1981 September 1. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 187). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 40 min.) 6-page summary. Topics include homesteading in the Egly area; teaching in rural schools; the destructive impact of insects on farming; agricultural methods employed by early farmers; and the use of farm machinery.

Lydia Keating interview, 1982 March 31. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 255). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 50 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include her childhood on a homestead near Utica in the early 1900s and homesteading with her husband near Stanford through the 1940s.

Mabel R. Anderson Smith interview, 1982 November 8. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 439). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include the reasons that her Norwegian American parents moved from Wisconsin to Montana and her experiences living and teaching school in Mineral County, ca. 1910-1940.

Mabel Taylor Ballantyne interview, 1982 January 18. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 227). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 3-page summary. Topics include her arrival in Montana; settling on a homestead near Rudyard in Hill County; and the family’s move to a ranch near Bozeman in Gallatin County.

Madolyn Ballantyne Lange Love interview, 1982 February 24. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 241). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 4-page summary. Topics include her childhood in Bozeman; education; her marriage to Herbert Lange; work with her husband, an insurance underwriter; travel; and her work at Shodair Children’s Hospital in Helena.

Margaret E. Gee interview, 1984 August 2. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 680). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 45 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include her youth on a Gallatin County farm from 1905 to 1920; family relations; schooling; farm work; and the 1918 Spanish influenza epidemic.

Mark Buckley and Petrena Dragseth Buckley interview, 1983 October 17. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 667). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 10 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include ranching and teaching in Prairie County, on the Dragseth Ranch, ca. 1910-1930s; Conrad’s Lumber Mill; and operating a store/post office/dance hall in Marion in the 1940s and 1950s.

Mary Fontana Tanner interview, 1982 July 14. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 307). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include homesteading with her parents near Round Butte, ca. 1910-1920; homesteading and ranching with her husband, John Tanner, near Square Butte from the 1920s to the 1960s; Quincy Granite Company; and Chouteau County agriculture.

Mary Goforth Redfield interview, 1982 May 26. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 291). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 50 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include teaching in Opheim and homesteading and farming in Valley County.

Mary Kanduch interview, 1982 November 23. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 415). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include her emigration from Austria in 1913; her work as a cook for several Anaconda Copper Mining Company logging camps in Deer Lodge County from 1914 to 1925; and her husband Joe Kanduch’s sawmill, which operated west of Anaconda until 1971.

Mary Seknyak Surmi interview, 1983 February 15. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 469). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 35 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include life in Sand Coulee; her experiences as a coal miner’s wife from the 1920s to the 1940s; her emigration from Czechoslovakia; and Czechoslovakian traditions in Montana.

Mattie Latham Scott interview, 1982 September 2. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 370). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 40 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include living on a ranch and teaching at rural schools in Stillwater County, ca. 1910-1920; the community of Columbus from 1920 to 1960; and her work in the Stillwater County abstract office.

May Bell Powell Applegate interview, 1983 March 7. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 474). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include the mining town of Emery, in Powell County, and ranch life near Deer Lodge.

Mildred Beaudoin interview, 1982 December 10. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 452). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include her career as a rural schoolteacher in Madison and Toole Counties from the 1920s to the 1950s, and the Liberty Mine in Madison County.

Mildred Freed Humes interview, 1982 December 14. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 437). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her homesteading and farming experiences north of Cut Bank, ca. 1910-1960, and the community of Cut Bank.

Mildred Miller Dufresne interview, 1982 September 23. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 393). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (50 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include her work as a teacher in Missoula County and in Milltown from the 1930s to the 1940s; the community of Milltown from 1935 to the 1950s; and how Milltown has changed since the 1970s.

Minda P. Brownell McAnnally interview, 1983 April 24. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 528). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 40 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her work as a telegraph operator for the Northern Pacific Railway in eastern Montana and in Richardton, North Dakota, from 1917 to 1920; and the lives of women operators during World War I.

Minnie Keilcher Landon interview, 1982 August 24. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 345). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include her early life near Roundup; the community of Sarpy; and ranching and farming with her husband near Crow Agency.

Minnie Piazzola interview, 1982 March 11. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 454). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (30 min.) 1-page summary. Topics include her work as a cook in Meaderville and social life in Meaderville’s Italian community during the 1920s and 1930s.

Minnie Sampson Christensen interview, 1982 October 23. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 407). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 35 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include her work as a cook, waitress, maid, and farm wife in Sheridan County, ca. 1910 to 1950; the Danish population in northeastern Montana; and the communities of Reserve and Dagmar.

Nathalie Penson interview, 1983 April 15. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 509). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (55 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include ranching in Big Horn County, near Decker, from the 1920s to the 1940s.

Nell O’Brien O’Malley interview, 1982 February 16. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 470). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 40 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include the community of Big Sandy; her work on the McNamara Ranch; and operating a beauty shop in Big Sandy.

Nellie Agnstrom Olson interview, 1982 August 20. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 340). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (40 min.) 1-page summary. Topics include emigrating from Canada to Montana; her early life in Cut Bank and Valier; and living and working in Hardin and on the Crow Indian Reservation.

Nils E. Torske and Lois Torske interview, 1982 August 26. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 349). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (45 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include dryland farming in Big Horn County from the 1920s to 1980.

Nina Armstrong Burkett interview, 1983 May 20. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 536). Montana Historical Society. 4 audio tapes (3 hr., 45 min.) 9-page summary. Topics include her husband, Burkett, and his work as a chemist for the Ideal Cement Company in Trident from 1917 to 1957; the town of Trident; the role of the cement company in the community; labor-management relationships; and Italian Americans.

Nita Daniels Olson and Andrew Olson interview, 1982 December 19. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 440). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include living in Superior and Mineral County from the 1930s to the 1950s; the Diamond Match Company; and working in Mineral County gold mines and sawmills.

Nola B. Holtberg interview, 1983 June 9. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 534). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 1-page summary. Topics include her work at the Frazer Hotel during the1920s; housework; and her involvement in the Frazer community from the 1920s to the 1940s.

Nola Payne Sloan interview, 1983 September 20. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 665). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 35 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include her childhood and young adulthood in Troy from 1901 to 1923; teaching school in Lincoln County during the early 1920s; and her participation in community activities and local organizations since the 1940s.

Olive M. Ahola Kielty and Charles Nelson interview, 1982 November 9. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 444). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 50 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include the town of St. Regis from the 1920s to the 1950s and the local economy during that period. Charles Nelson discusses life in St. Regis, ca. 1910-1920; the local lumber industry; and his work in Mineral County, especially in Butte, during the 1930s.

Olive Nieland Hellickson interview, 1984 February 28. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 672). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (55 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her work as a teacher in North Dakota in the 1930s and in St. Regis in the 1960s, and ranching in Daniels County from 1939 to 1960. Places represented include Scobey, Montana.

Opal G. Maxey interview, 1981 September 21. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 193). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 11-page summary. Topics include her childhood in Livingston; her courtship and marriage to Dave Maxey; the Maxey family coal mine in Park County; her years teaching school; ranching; farming; and cooking for threshing crews and for government-sponsored school programs.

Pauline DeBray and Leo DeBray interview, 1982 May 23. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 286). Montana Historical Society. 5 tapes (5 hr.) 7-page summary. Topics include the DeBray and Lenz families; cooking for threshing crews; ranch life; sheepherding and sheep ranching; Valley County; experiences during the World War I era; and work on the Fort Peck Dam.

Pearl D. Johnson interview, 1982 June 9. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 533). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include her experiences farming and ranching north of Frazer from 1910 to 1947.

Pearl Metrovich interview, 1981 September 15. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 488). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include childhood experiences on her parents’ Arrow Creek Bench homestead in Fergus County from 1900 to 1917 and ranch life during the 1920s and 1930s.

Pearl Reser Reeves interview, 1982 June 10. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 298). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 25 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include homesteading north of Chinook, ca. 1910-1930; her work as the Chinook postmistress; and dairy farming during the 1930s.

Rachel Coram Paterson interview, 1982 August 30. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 326). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include her childhood on Flathead Lake and in Kalispell; her marriage to Archie Paterson; and her husband’s work at the Kalispell Mercantile Company.

Ramona Roe Jellison interview, 1982 August 25. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 324). Montana Historical Society. 3 audio tapes (1 hr., 50 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include life in Flathead County from the 1920s to the 1950s; farming with her husband near LaSalle; teaching at Echo Lake; and her community service work in Kalispell.

Reverend Mary Wessel interview, 1982 January 5. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 231). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 15 min.) 5-page summary. Topics include her marriage to Louie Wessel; her husband’s job mapping the Belt and Castle Mountains for the U.S. Forest Service; and her organization of Unity Church ministries in Butte, Bozeman, Billings, and Livingston.

Rita LaVoie interview, 1981 December 19. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 230). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 45 min.) 5-page summary. Topics include her childhood in Milltown, ca. 1910-1920; her work as a young housewife and mother in the 1920s; the ethnic groups in Milltown; and the impact of national social movements and world events on that community.

Rosalind Reynolds Harper interview, 1984 June 1. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 676). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 25 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include operating, with her husband, Leland Harper, the Harper Logging Company of Missoula from 1921 to 1958; specific logging contracts; camp life; cooking for lumberjacks; and the effects of mechanization on the industry.

Rose Larson interview, 1982 May 10. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 276). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 3-page summary. Topics include operating a small coal mine with her husband near Roundup in the late 1920s; specific tasks in the mine; first-aid and massage work; and her job cooking at the Vienna Cafe in Roundup.

Rose Weaver Lorensen interview, 1983 February 8. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 462). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 55 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include life in Drummond and other communities in the area during the early 1900s, and her work as a farm wife in Powell and Granite Counties from the 1920s to the 1960s.

Ruby Greenwell interview, 1982 April 2. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 267). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 40 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include cattle ranching; wheat farming; Works Progress Administration (WPA) assistance; hardships of the 1930s Depression in Chouteau County; and insect infestation.

Ruth Gray Romney interview, 1982 October 5. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 422). Montana Historical Society. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 10 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her life in the Bitterroot Valley of western Montana; the Ravalli County fruit orchard boom, ca. 1910-1920; and her husband Miles Romney’s operation of the Western News in Hamilton.

Saima Koski Myllymaki interview, 1982 March 19. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 251). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 3-page summary. Topics include her childhood; the Finnish community; and her husband Ted Myllymaki’s work in Judith Basin County.

Stella “Sunny” Peters interview, 1983 March 4. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 495). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 10-page summary. Topics include her work as a nurse for the Northern Cheyenne Indian Health Service during the 1940s, and health care and living conditions on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation.

Susie Clarke Huston interview, 1983 April 23. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 519). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 58 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include her experiences homesteading, teaching, and sheep ranching in northern Garfield County from 1914 to the 1960s.

Tony Bengochea and Concepcion Bengochea interview, 1982 October 19. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 400). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 3-page summary. Topics include their work herding sheep and cooking for crews at the Etchart Ranch in Valley County from the 1920s to 1947; their purchase and operation of a sheep ranch north of Nashua; and experiences of Basques in northeastern Montana.

Verna McKean Carlson interview, 1981 October 27. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 207). Montana Historical Society. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 55 min.) 7-page summary. Topics include her childhood; moving with her family to McCone County; farming; ranching; her involvement with the Montana Farmers Union; the use of wind chargers before Rural Electrification Administration (REA) power arrived; and the growth and development of McCone County.

Vina Stirling interview, 1981 September 3. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 189). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 55 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include her childhood on a farm near Havre, in Hill County; domestic jobs; homesteading; raising her family; and ranching.

Virginia Johnson interview, 1981 November 12. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 210). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include logging operations in Missoula County and operation of the Double Arrow Ranch near Seeley Lake.

Walter Duncan, Perdita Duncan, Elmo Fortune, and William Fenter interview, 1983 March 24. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 483). Montana Historical Society. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 35 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include the African American community in Butte from about 1910 to the 1940s; African American employment, social life, churches, and clubs in Butte; the Silver City Club; physicians; and prevalent white attitudes towards African Americans.

Walter Yeager and Leona Parkhurst Yeager interview, 1982 October 22. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 405). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 25 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include Walter’s homesteading experiences in the Plentywood area, ca. 1910-1920, and operating a coal mine during the 1930s. Leona Yeager recalls teaching experiences on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation during the 1920s; the Works Progress Administration (WPA); and the Depression.

William J. Killorn and Nina M. Killorn interview, 1981 September 18. Montanans at Work Oral History Project (OH 192). Montana Historical Society. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 50 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include the farming and ranching backgrounds of their respective families and their automobile and tractor business in the 1940s.

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