Small Town Montana Oral History Project—Bibliography

This bibliography includes oral histories from the Montana Historical Society’s Small Town Montana Oral History Project. This project explored the history and development of twelve Montana communities: Broadus, Chinook, Choteau, Columbia Falls, Cut Bank, Eureka, Forsyth, Philipsburg, Plains, Plentywood, Roundup, and Sidney. Ranging in population from 800 to 4,500, these towns reflect the diversity of Montana’s smaller communities and the people and industries that help them thrive. Topics discussed include the role of local institutions, industry community development programs, celebrations, education, religion, and health care in small-town life. Where possible, audio format is noted. The collection is divided between oral histories that have been transcribed and those that have not. Where possible, length of typed transcription is noted.

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Transcribed:

Clara Mentzer Fleming interview, 1983 August 23. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 717). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 10 min.) 48-page transcript. Topics include community life in Eureka; her participation in several area clubs and organizations, including the garden club, the Little Theatre Club, and the Tobacco Valley Improvement Association; the formation of local Girl Scout troops; and her teaching experiences in Lincoln County.

Dorothy Arensmeyer Cook interview, 1984 April 11. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 770). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 50 min.) 39-page transcript. Topics include her youth in the Farmington area in the1920s; life in Choteau from the 1930s to the 1970s; her work at the Parkway Cafe and at the post office in Choteau; and her involvement with various community organizations.

Dorothy Jackson Armstrong interview, 1984 April 9. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 772). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 50 min.) 42-page transcript. Topics include community life in Choteau; her work at the Teton Steam Laundry, J.C. Penney store, the Citizen’s State Bank, and the Teton County courthouse; her activities as a volunteer for the local chapter of the Red Cross; and her father, John G.

Gladys Van Shay interview, 1983 December 1. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 735). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 5 min.) 51-page transcript. Topics include community life in Columbia Falls; the town’s development; her career with the weekly Hungry Horse News from 1946 to 1976; her various part-time jobs in the area; and her involvement with several community organizations and youth groups.

Helen Moss Bolen interview, 1983 August 29. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 709). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 10 min.) 51-page transcript. Topics include the community of Eureka from the 1920s into the 1980s; her participation in such community groups as the Eureka Hospital Association, the Eureka Cemetery Association, and the Tobacco Valley Improvement Association; and teaching in the Tobacco Valley during the 1930s.

Iona Davidson Zgoda interview, 1984 April 11. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 768). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 35 min.) 39-page transcript. Topics include her childhood and education; her work in the county extension service agent’s office in Choteau from 1927 to 1948; her marriage to Frank Zgoda; the innovative agricultural and community programs developed by county agent Robert Clarkson; Teton County’s own Chautauqua; the effects of the 1930s Depression; the Teton County Planning Board; and cultural and social activities in the area.

Isabel Griffin Bonifas interview, 1984 July 11. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 797). Montana Historical Society Archives. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 20 min.) 44-page transcript. Topics include her operation of several movie theaters in Chinook from the 1920s to 1970; other Bonifas family business enterprises; and neighborhoods and community activities in Chinook, including the Blaine County Museum.

James Patten and Phyllis McLeod Patten interview, 1984 January 27. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 741). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 10 min.) 68-page transcript. Topics include community life in Philipsburg; World War I protests; local manganese mining and milling; the establishment of the Philipsburg Public Library; and the publication of Small Town Stuff, a controversial book based on life in Philipsburg.

Jewell Peterson Wolk interview, 1984 November 29. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 827). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 63-page transcript. Topics include growing up on the family homestead near Cut Bank; her social activities; community development during the 1930s and 1940s; the effects of oil-and-gas development on the area; the contributions of community women; and contraception, unwanted pregnancy, and abortion.

M. Colleen McCartney Allison interview, 1983 December 1. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 733). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 25-page transcript. Topics include her experiences as a member of the Columbia Falls city council from 1972 to 1978, and her subsequent work as mayor and as executive secretary of the local school board.

Phyllis Knott Moen interview, 1992 December 15. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 1194). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 30 min.) 13-page transcript. Topics include her family and life in Eureka; area health care and physicians; her father’s photography business in Eureka; the poet Jim Whilt; residents, buildings, and businesses in Eureka; and social events and holidays in the community.

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Not Transcribed (may include a typed summary):

Afton Caufield Scott interview, 1984 March 21. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 763). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (40 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include community life in Choteau; her work for Dr. Ernest B. Maynard from 1934 to 1938; and her twenty-five-year career as a nurse in the Teton County Nursing Home in Choteau.

Agnes Kube Simkins interview, 1984 October 12. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 811). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include her operation of the Maverick Bar in Roundup from 1939 to 1984; the 1930s Depression; local entertainment; and other Roundup businesses.

Agnes L. McGarvey Kearns interview, 1984 January 25. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 738). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 10 min.) 5-page summary. Topics include her childhood on the family ranch in Granite County, ca. 1910-1920, and her career at the Philipsburg State Bank and at the Flint Creek Valley Bank from 1919 to 1969.

Agnes Maehl McDonald interview, 1984 January 26. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 739). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 55 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include churches, clubs, and schools in Philipsburg from the 1920s to the 1970s; her work as Granite County clerk and recorder during the 1950s; her operation of a local ranch; and her participation in local agricultural organizations.

Albina Peltier Johnson interview, 1983 September 22. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 715). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include the community of Eureka; her work for the Peltier creamery from 1945 to 1953; and her involvement with the Lincoln County Rural Electrification Association (REA) from 1952 to 1970.

Alva Larson Armstrong interview, 1984 March 1. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 749). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 5 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include education, commerce, and entertainment in Choteau from 1910 to 1931; and the involvement of her father, Thomas O. Larson, in Choteau business and politics.

Anna Jensen Gabrielson interview, 1984 May 25. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 780). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (55 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her experiences homesteading north of Sidney and her work as a nurse in the Sidney Community Memorial Hospital from 1939 to 1956.

Annie Evans Larsen interview, 1984 October 24. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 815). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 35 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include businesses, community activities, churches, schools, hospitals, and clubs in Roundup from the 1920s to the 1980s; and teaching journalism at Roundup High School in the 1940s.

Ben McKennie, Laura McKennie Palm, and Pearl Reser Reeves interview, 1984 June 29. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 792). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 10 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include their individual family histories; and community businesses, social life, customs, and physical changes in Chinook from 1910 to 1980.

Bernadine Prader Logan interview, 1985 May 14. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 871). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (45 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her work teaching in Plentywood during the 1930s; and the local leftist political groups of the time, including Socialists and Communists.

Bernard Thomas and Elise Wipf Thomas interview, 1984 August 29. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 807). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (2 hr.) 5-page summary. Bernard Thomas recalls his career as an attorney in Chinook and his service as city attorney and as district judge. Elise Thomas discusses her work as the Blaine County home demonstration agent during the 1940s.

Betty Groves Horrigan Christenson interview, 1984 February 9. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 743). Montana Historical Society Archives. 3 audio tapes (2 hr., 30 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include Christenson’s ownership and operation of the Granada Theatre in Philipsburg from 1935 to 1981; community life in Philipsburg; and her participation in local clubs and civic organizations.

Betty Kraber White interview, 1984 February 29. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 751). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (45 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include community life in Choteau; and the Beaupre Hotel, owned and operated by White’s mother.

Betty Smith Tucker interview, 1984 October 24. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 816). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 45 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include living near the Roundup Coal Mining Company’s Number Three Mine near Roundup from the 1920s to the 1950s; coal mining operations; housing, entertainment, and ethnic groups in the area; the impact of coal mining on the community; and local businesses, doctors, and churches.

Beulah G. Hames interview, 1984 July 27. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 802). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (45 min.) 1-page summary. Topics include life in Philipsburg, Montana, from 1917 to 1922; and Carmichael’s Livery Stable.

Blanche Brackett Richardson interview, 1985 April 17. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 863). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include teaching home economics in the Plains school system from 1942 to 1979; the relationship of the U.S. Forest Service to the community; how some local families coped with poverty; and community activities in Chinook.

Burgess Drake and Frances Kopp Drake interview, 1983 September 21. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 713). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 40 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include their experiences living and working on farms in the Tobacco Valley of northwestern Montana; and their affiliation with such Eureka community groups as the Baptist Church, the local grange, and Lincoln County High School. Burgess Drake also discusses his work at local lumber mills.

Catherine M. Brown interview, 1984 October 21. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 822). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 4-page summary. Topics include health care in Cut Bank from 1945 to 1984; public nursing; local physicians; the community hospital; and the Hutterite community.

Cecelia Lyonais Barnhart and Floyd Barnhart interview, 1983 November 18. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 726). 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 35 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include community life in Columbia Falls from1947 to 1983; Floyd Barnhart’s work for the Plum Creek Timber Company; and Cecelia Barnhart’s involvement with the local 4-H club and with St. Richard’s Catholic Church.

Dora Huffman Penington and Florence Huffman Neal interview, 1984 January 27. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 740). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 5 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include the history and operation of Huffman’s Grocery Store in Philipsburg; their work as teachers in Philipsburg schools; and the community’s businesses, clubs, and social life.

Doris Martin Fievet interview, 1984 October 10. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 808). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 10 min.) 5-page summary. Topics include her work for the local telephone company in Roundup from the 1920s to the 1950s; Roundup businesses, neighborhoods, and entertainment; and her French American heritage.

Dorothy “Dolly” May Emerson Page interview, 1984 February 10 and April 18. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 746). Montana Historical Society Archives. 6 tapes (5 hr., 25 min.) 11-page summary. Topics include businesses she operated in Philipsburg from the 1930s into the 1980s; community activities and local politics; the Junior Women’s Club; the hospital auxiliary; her early years in Butte; and recollections of Leland Page.

Dorothy Holmes O’Neil interview, 1984 April 10. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 769). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 5 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her work at the Citizen’s State Bank in Choteau from 1937 through the 1960s; her involvement in several community-service organizations; and the Freemen Ranch.

Dorothy Jordan Brading and Margaret Jordan Walker interview, 1983 October 19. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 720). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 55 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include community life from 1915 to 1940; the A.L. Jordan Lumber Company; local businesses; town celebrations; area churches; and women’s groups. Longtime residents of Columbia Falls, Montana.

Dorothy R. Gregory interview, 1985 February 13. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 845). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (45 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her work as a registered nurse at the Rosebud County Community Hospital in Forsyth from 1949 to 1985 and health care in the community.

Dorreen Hampton Wolfe interview, 1985 April 18. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 865). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (55 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her work for the McGowan’s Commercial Company store in Plains during the 1950s to 1960s; the store’s relationship to the community; and U.S. Forest Service operations in the area.

Dr. Robert H. Leeds and Lucia Timmons Leeds interview, 1984 July 7. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 798). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr. 35 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include his work as a physician in Chinook from 1941 to 1978; his duties as a Blaine County health officer; the nature of health care and specific health problems in Chinook; and health care debates in the community. Lucia Leeds addresses her work teaching piano and vocal music in Chinook from the 1940s to the 1980s and musical opportunities in the area.

Edith Jackson Finch interview, 1985 February 13. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 846). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (30 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include the hardships of the ranching profession and the various jobs she held during the1930s Depression.

Elizabeth Gregory Greene interview, 1983 October 18. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 719). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 35 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include community life in Columbia Falls from 1916 into the 1950s; local women’s groups; Chautauquas; area churches; health care; and various neighborhoods in Columbia Falls.

Emily Sturgeon Crary interview, 1984 February 29. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 754). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 55 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include her operation of the Royal Theatre in Choteau from 1913 to 1946; her involvement in the local women’s club; and her participation in other community activities.

Esther Nelstead Dean interview, 1985 February 12. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 843). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 5 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include the impact of the Northern Pacific Railway Company on the overall character of Forsyth; her experiences in the Forsyth Women’s Club; her husband, Walter Dean; and their operation of the Howdy Hotel, formerly called the Hotel Commercial.

Eva Crane Sullivan interview, 1985 May 30. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 888). 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 50 min.) 5-page summary. Topics include teaching in rural schools near Broadus during the 1920s; her operation of the Broadus Mercantile from 1951 to 1969; and community activities.

Fay Chandler and Violet Cybulski Chandler interview, 1985 May 15. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 870). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 5 min.) 3-page summary. Fay Chandler discusses his father’s operation of pool halls and bootleg parlors in Sheridan County during Prohibition; hardships encountered during the1930s Depression; and leftist groups in Plentywood during the 1920s to 1930s , including Socialists and Communists. Violet Chandler discusses her childhood on a farm near Plentywood.

Faye Burrington Beres interview, 1985 February 14. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 849). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 5 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include social life and entertainment in Forsyth from 1914 to the 1960s; her husband, Max Beres; and her husband’s work as a mayor of Forsyth and as a Northern Pacific Railway Company employee.

Florence Howes Smith interview, 1985 March 21. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 855). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include teaching school in Plains during the1950s; local education, sports, and entertainment; women’s clubs; businesses in Plains; and population changes in the area.

Floyd Darling and Vera Greene Darling interview, 1983 November 28. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 727). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (2 hrs.) 4-page summary. Topics include life in Columbia Falls from the 1920s into the 1960s; the Depression; Floyd Darling’s work for the U.S. Forest Service; and Vera Darling’s job at the Bank of Columbia Falls from 1960 to 1979.

Francis M. Shenefelt interview, 1983 August 24. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 704). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 10 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include working as a practical nurse at the Eureka hospital from 1919 to 1923; health care in Eureka; living in the West Kootenai neighborhood from the late 1920s into the 1940s; and her involvement in various community organizations, including the Help Each Other Club.

Frank McLain and Edith Boyes McLain interview, 1985 June 3. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 893). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 35 min.) 6-page summary. Topics include his operation of a mail route between Broadus and Arvada from 1924 to 1985, and playing baseball in Broadus from the 1920s to the 1950s. Edith McLain discusses her involvement in local politics; her service as Powder River County superintendent of schools, county treasurer, clerk of the district court, and Broadus town treasurer; her participation in the Broadus Community Club; the impact of the 1930s Depression on the community; and relationships between the town and the county.

Geraldine Atwater and George J. Atwater III interview, 1984 May 30. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 786). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (45 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include life in Sidney; the impact of the oil industry on the area; their participation in community activities from 1980 to 1984; and Geraldine Atwater’s high school teaching career.

Gina Houge Lippard and Charles W. Lippard interview, 1983 April 7. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 494). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 5 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include her homesteading experiences in Choteau County, near Malta, and his cattle and sheep ranching northeast of Fort Benton, ca. 1910-1950s.

Gladys Link Atkinson interview, 1984 May 29. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 783). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 25 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include the operation of the Lone Tree Inn in Sidney from 1929 to 1964 and other local cafes and bars.

Grace Homan Duffey interview, 1984 March 19. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 759). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 35 min.) Topics include her family background; her work with her aunt, Mrs. Beaupre, operating the Beaupre Hotel in Choteau; her experiences as a teacher and as a singer; and her involvement with St. Joseph’s Catholic Church in Choteau.

Hazel Birthwraite Wilson interview, 1984 October 10. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 809). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 10 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include teaching in Roundup and in Musselshell County from the 1920s to the 1960s; Roundup lodges, clubs, and entertainment; Japanese laborers; and area coal mines.

Helen T. Schagel interview, 1983 August 24. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 705). Montana Historical Society Archives. 4 audio tapes (4 hr. 15 min.) 6-page summary. Topics include Eureka from about 1910 into the 1980s; her work for the county/state Department of Public Welfare; the Majestic Theatre in Eureka; and her involvement with community organizations, including the Junior Women’s Club.

Hildegarde E. McDougal interview, 1984 April 18. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 774). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include her work as the clerk and recorder for Granite County from 1936 to 1962 and community life in Philipsburg from 1919 into the 1960s.

Irene Jones Dauwalder McManus interview, 1984 March 20. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 766). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 10 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include Bole from 1914 to 1939; community life in Choteau from 1939 into the 1980s; and her involvement in several clubs, including the Bole Women’s Club, the Choteau Women’s Club, the Rebekahs, and the 4-H.

Isabelle Lemmon Truchot interview, 1984 April 10. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 764). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tapes (1 hr., 5 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her employment with the Ed Hirshberg family in Choteau from 1926 to 1935; ranch life in northern Teton County from the 1930s into the 1940s; her involvement in various community groups; and her Scottish American background.

Jean Cathey Hough interview, 1985 June 4. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 884). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 50 min.) 5-page summary. Topics include her operation of the C-Bar-J Motel in Broadus from 1956 to the 1980s; her participation in the community hospital planning committee, on the school board, and in other organizations; the local economy; and rural-town relations.

Jenny Kaiser Saurer interview, 1984 February 9. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 744). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tapes (1 hr., 5 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include various neighborhoods in Philipsburg; the Kaiser family; her work at the local Golden Rule Store; lodges and clubs in Philipsburg; community life; and her German American ancestry.

Jenny Racki Lind interview, 1984 October 24. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 814). 1 audio tape (1 hr., 5 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include operating a dairy and a milk-route business in Roundup from the 1930s to the 1950s; the Roundup Coal Mining Company’s Number Three Mine camp; local entertainment; and her Yugoslavian American heritage.

Jesse C. Bleecker and Jean K. Lassale Bleecker interview, 1984 March 21. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 762). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 5 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include community life in Choteau from the1930s to the 1960s. Jesse Bleecker talks of his work as a carpenter and a stonemason, and Jean Bleecker discusses her experiences as a nurse in local hospitals.

Jesse Malone and Nora Lemon Malone interview, 1984 February 28. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 755). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 5 min.) 5-page summary. Topics include cattle ranching at the Flying U Ranch, north of Choteau, from 1940 into the 1970s; the development of their Simmental herd; and their participation in various Choteau community and medical care organizations, including the hospital auxiliary, 4-H, and the Teton County Oldest Settlers Club.

Julia West Vanleishout interview, 1983 August 23. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 703). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 5 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include farm life in the Tobacco Valley from1910 to 1960; events in Eureka between 1910 and 1960; her family’s role in the town; and her involvement with the local grange and the Methodist Church.

Katherine Erpelding interview, 1985 January 16. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 838). 1 audio tape (50 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her life on a dryland farm near Forsyth from1915 to 1935; the relationship between local ranchers and farmers; and the role played by the homestead movement in area development.

Lavenia Gagnon Clark interview, 1985 March 21. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 854). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include life in Plains from the 1920s to the1940s; her operation of a service station in town; and McGowan’s Commercial Company.

Lillian Rogers Kirkpatrick interview, 1984 October 31. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 819). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 35 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include her work for and her management of the Bair-Collins Coal Company of Roundup during the 1950s; the impact of coal mining on the town; her work as mayor of Roundup in the 1950s; the establishment of the local hospital; and the UMW president W. A. “Tony” Boyle’s association with the Roundup mines.

Lois W. Nelson interview, 1984 November 29. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 828). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (50 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include her participation in various women’s organizations in Cut Bank from the 1950s to the 1980s, including Women’s Homemakers, Soroptimists, Toastmistresses, and the Cut Bank Women’s Club.

Louise G. Eiselein Rasmussen interview, 1984 October 11. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 812). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 50 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include the operation of the Roundup weekly Record-Tribune from the 1940s to the 1980s; community life in Roundup during the 1920s and 1930s; the Ku Klux Klan; and local coal mining.

Louise Kavon interview, 1985 May 16. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 873). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 5 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include the operation of Plentywood Motor Sales, ca. 1910-1920s; area farm problems including drought and depression from 1915 to the 1930s; the establishment of the first hospital in Plentywood; and the local bootlegging business during Prohibition.

Lucille L. Durocher interview, 1984 November 27. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 829). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (50 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her involvement in the local Catholic Church from1947 to the 1980s; changes in Catholic religious practices since the 1960s; and the relationships among the various churches in Cut Bank.

Madeline MacArthur Marsonette interview, 1984 July 10. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 800). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr. 50 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include the neighborhoods, churches, and businesses of Chinook; the Blaine County Museum; the local Hispanic American community; and her work for the Utah-Idaho Sugar Company’s sugar beet plant during the 1940s.

Mae Marsh Hark interview, 1985 May 16. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 872). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 2-page summary. Topics include her work for the telephone company in Plentywood from 1948 to 1964; her employment at the local J.C. Penney’s store from the 1960s to 1985; the impact of World War II on the community; local employment opportunities for women; entertainment patterns in Plentywood; and rural-town differences.

Margaret Campfield Perry interview, 1984 August 29. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 806). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 25 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include Campfield’s Cash and Carry, the grocery store her father, William Campfield, operated in Chinook from 1919 to 1943; her childhood; her teaching experiences in Blaine County; and community activities in Chinook.

Margaret J. Seitz interview, 1984 May 31. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 790). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 10 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include her work as a teacher in Sidney during the 1950s; her service on the Sidney school board from1973 to 1983; and local education issues.

Marie Miller Traub interview, 1985 May 31. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 891). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 45 min.) 5-page summary. Topics include the operation of the Miller Hospital in Broadus by her mother, Marie M. Miller; the management of the Broadus Flour Mill by her father, John P. Miller; local health care; entertainment; the Catholic Church; and her participation in such community groups as 4-H and the Community Church.

Marjorie Hartmann interview, 1984 November 1. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 823). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (55 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include her work in the school system, and her experiences teaching in rural schools and as principal in the Cut Bank schools from the 1940s to the 1960s.

Marjory O’Day interview, 1984 November 28. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 831). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (35 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her management of the Cut Bank weekly Western Breeze from 1955 to 1984, and the participation of women in local businesses.

Mary Alice Rehbein interview, 1984 May 31. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 789). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 5 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include her work as a Richland County public health nurse, and health care and health programs in Sidney since 1950.

Mary Lemmon Schoonmaker interview, 1984 March 20. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 760). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tapes (1 hr., 5 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her ownership and operation of the Cornell Hotel in Choteau from 1951 to 1978.

Mary Pomeroy interview, 1985 June 4. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 883). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr.) 3-page summary. Topics include her work as a county extension service agent in Powder River County during 1984 and 1985; local 4-H Club projects; the importance of agriculture to the Broadus economy; and rural-town relationships.

Maude Webber Johnson interview, 1985 March 21. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 856). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 5 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include her work teaching in Plains schools from the 1920s to the 1980s; the changing relationships between teachers and the community; management of the Plains bank; and the history of the local women’s club.

Maurine Thomas Smith interview, 1984 April 14. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 775). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 6-page summary. Topics include her childhood in Eureka; community events, businesses, and townspeople; her teaching career in the area; and local Christmas celebrations.

Maye Butler Alverson interview, 1983 August 5. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 702). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 10 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include the early logging and ranching economies of Eureka and Lincoln County; her work for Whithicomb’s Drug Store in Eureka in the 1930s; and Eureka churches, lodges, businesses, and neighborhoods from 1907 to 1983. Resident of Eureka.

Millar T. Bryce interview, 1985 April 17. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 862). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 15 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include the operation of the Flodine Lumber Mill in Plains from the 1940s to the 1980s; her participation on the local school board during the 1960s; the role of schools in rural life; and her involvement in locating a new local hospital.

Morris Cole and Lauraine Crandell Cole interview, 1985 January 17. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 841). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 5 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include the impacts of Colstrip coal development on the town of Forsyth; population changes in the area; the growth of Forsyth businesses and employment; community groups; and local agriculture. Residents of Forsyth.

Morris Nelson and Mary Lou Matkin Nelson interview, 1985 May 15. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 880). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 5 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include the establishment and operation of Plentywood’s first FM radio station (KPWD) from 1962 to 1968; community clubs and women’s organizations; and Mary Lou Nelson’s operation of The Vogue, a women’s clothing store, from 1968 to 1984. Residents of Plentywood.

Myrtle Bushman Reardon interview, 1984 March 1. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 757). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 5 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include businesses and entertainment in Choteau from the 1920s into the 1940s; Indian-white relations in the area; and Chinese resident, Soo Son.

Nancy Marron interview, 1985 May 16. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 874). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (55 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include operating a ranch near Plentywood from 1933 to 1976 and her successful efforts to save the ranch during the 1930s Depression.

Nellie Schmidt Weipert interview, 1985 February 14. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 848). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 5 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include her work for the Rosebud County welfare department, primarily on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, during the 1950s and 1960s; social life in Forsyth; and her career teaching in rural schools.

Nina Crouse Rogerson interview, 1984 October 24. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 818). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 35 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include community life in Roundup from 1918 to the 1980s; the town’s neighborhoods, businesses, schools, hospital, entertainment, and lodges; and her involvement with the Roundup Women’s Club.

Olga Wagnild Monkman interview, 1984 February 29. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 758). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (40 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include her life on a homestead north of Choteau from 1900 to 1940.

Orla E. Kimzey interview, 1983 November 15. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 721). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 45 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include social life in Columbia Falls from 1954 to 1983; local government; area churches; community organizations; and her teaching experiences at the Columbia Falls grade school from 1955 to 1978.

Pauline Bilger Doughten interview, 1984 June 28. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 793). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 50 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include businesses, entertainment, civic organizations, and influential individuals in Chinook from the 1920s to the 1980s; O’Hanlon Company sugar beet farming in the Paradise Valley; and the impact of agriculture on Chinook businesses.

Pauline Blue Deem interview, 1985 May 14. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 868). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 15 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her work with various homemaker clubs for the Sheridan County Agricultural Extension Service in Plentywood during the 1950s; the life of rural women; Scandinavian traditions in the area; changes in the Plentywood community since the 1950s; her Norwegian American ancestry.

Prudence Hollenbeck Garland interview, 1985 January 15. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 835). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 15 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include her life in Forsyth during the 1930s; and her grandfather, Thomas Alexander, one of the town’s founding fathers.

Ruth Harrington Newmiller interview, 1985 June 3. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 894). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 35 min.) 4-page summary. Topics include her teaching career in Broadus and in Powder River County; and the plumbing business of her husband, Carl Newmiller.

Synove Bratberg Lalonde interview, 1984 May 25. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 791). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (2 hr., 5 min.) 3-page summary. Topics include her work as a nurse for a local physician and in the Sidney hospital during the 1930s; the history of health care in the community; social life and entertainment; Lalonde family business enterprises; and effects of the sugar beet and oil industries on the area’s economy.

Thelma Abel Johnson interview, 1984 July 12. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 799). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 5 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include the operation of the weekly Chinook Opinion from 1936 to 1984 and her specific duties with the newspaper.

Thomas J. Daily and Ellen Daily interview, 1985 May 31. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 895). Montana Historical Society Archives. 1 audio tape (1 hr., 5 min.) 2-page summary. Topics include their work for McMann and Burton groceries from 1933 to 1958; the operation of their own grocery in Broadus from 1958 to 1966; local government; and small-town business practices.

Walter Jensen and Mary Micheletto Jensen interview, 1984 May 31. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 788). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 50 min.) 8-page summary. Topics include their operation of a dairy and a milk-route business in Sidney during the 1920s and 1930s; area agriculture; their participation in the Montana Farmers Union local; their involvement in the Catholic Church in Sidney; the John Birch Society; and various town controversies.

Willard E. Bruns Sr. and Willma M. Applegate Bruns interview, 1984 February 9. Small Town Montana Oral History Project (OH 745). Montana Historical Society Archives. 2 audio tapes (1 hr., 30 min.) 3-page summary. Willard Bruns reflects on his duties with the U.S. Forest Service at the Rock Creek Station in Granite County during the 1930s and his work with the Mine-Mill union. Willma Bruns discusses living at Rock Creek and community life in Philipsburg.

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