Manuscript Bibliography Montana’s 20th-Century Women

This bibliography includes items from the Manuscript Collections and Small Collections of the Montana Historical Society Archives. Some of these entries are repeated in the 19th-century bibliography.

Download a list of collections here.


Addie Stewart papers, Stewart Family papers, 1910-1978. SC 162. Montana Historical Society Archives. Addie Elizabeth Osborn Stewart and her husband, Cary Ellsworth Stewart, homesteaded at Ismay, Montana, during the “Homestead Boom” between 1900 and 1918. Papers consist of a letter to Emma Milnor describing their first six months on the farm; and a brief reminiscence begun by Addie Stewart, and completed by her son Charles A. Stewart, outlining the family history.

Adelaide Dampiere Melton interview, 1976. SC 1252.  Montana Historical Society Archives. Adelaide Melton was Montana’s first State Superintendent of Music. She also taught music at several Montana high schools. She describes her work and her travels to Europe in this interview by Ester Johansson Murray. This interview was conducted as part of the AAUW-Billings Chapter Historical Memoirs Project.

Agnes Jean Wood papers 1911-1999. SC 2243. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection consist of reminiscences (1991, 1999) written by Wood concerning her life in Montana and in Washington; writings; legal documents (1956-1975); and miscellany, including genealogical materials. She or some woman in her family was a teacher in Bozeman and in Golden Valley County.

Agnes Lix O’Brien papers, 1942-1997. SC 1322.  Montana Historical Society Archives. Agness Lix O’Brien served in the Women’s Reserve of the U.S. Naval Reserve, or WAVE, during World War II. This collection contains correspondence; legal documents including discharge papers; clippings; programs; publications; and miscellany, including a short history of the Naval Training School in Bronx, New York; various brochures regarding separation from the Navy; and two issues of The Ford Islander.

Albert B. Kimball Family papers, 1864-1957. MC 188. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection consists of papers from three generations of Kimball and Hanson families from 1864 to 1957. The Peter and Anna Gustafsen Hanson Subgroup contains correspondence and financial records (1894-1895) about their creamery business in Stevensville, Montana; their marriage certificate; naturalization papers of Peter (1872, 1892); and an autograph book (1881-1886). The Albert and Hilma Kimball Subgroup consists of correspondence (1897-1940), including Hilma’s letters of recommendation as a teacher and appointments to teaching positions (1897-1903); diaries (1933-1944), including Hilma’s reminiscences and an article on Butte’s history; and miscellaneous papers, including autograph books (1880-1891), Hilma’s school records (1893-1902), and scrapbooks (1927-1941).

Allis Brown Stuart papers, 1879-1942. SC 1009. Montana Historical Society Archives. Allis Stuart (1863-1947) was a schoolteacher at the communities of Maiden and Sidney, the wife of Granville Stuart, and an amateur historian. Her collection includes a diary; biographical sketches and genealogical information; correspondence between herself and William A. Clark, George Bird Grinnell, and others; notes from her oral interviews; a reminiscence; and historical writings on topics such as the DHS Ranch and the pioneers of the Bitterroot Valley.

Amanda O. Swift writing, undated. SC 821. Montana Historical Society Archives. Amanda Swift was a schoolteacher in the central Montana town of Winnett. This collection consists of an article written by Amanda Swift describing the history of the Winnett school system and her role in its formation. The article was part of a three-part series published in the Winnett Times, December 1941.

American Association of University Women, Montana Division records, 1923-2001. MC 202. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection consists of records (1923-2001) of the Montana Division of the American Association of University Women (AAUW) and includes biographical material about AAUW members, correspondence, financial records, minutes, organizational records, reports, subject files, speeches, campaign materials, and miscellany. Also included are branch records for over twenty city or county chapters, including extensive records for the Helena and Glendive branches. The subject files series includes materials from conventions and board meetings, and topical files such as legislation and policy, mental health care, kindergarten and daycare, the environment, fellowships, post-secondary education, gender equity and the status of women, and numerous programs and grants related to AAUW activities and Montana women.

American Indian Women’s essays, James Willard Schultz Indian Heritage Competition writings, 1975. Montana Historical Society Archives. SC 1315. The James Willard Schultz Indian Heritage Competition was a privately sponsored literary contest in commemoration of this early Montana writer. The collection consists of essays and poems written by Montana Indians reflecting on their attitudes toward Indian life and culture in the Salish, Assiniboine, Apsaalooke, Salish, and Blackfeet tribes. Included in this collection are essays by Patricia Baurle, Loretta Lynn Bell, Delores Durgeloh, Karol McChance, and Cheri Nordwall.

Ancient Order of Hibernians, Ladies Auxiliary, Anaconda, Montana, records 1900-1908. SC 1528. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Ladies Auxiliary of the Ancient Order of Hibernians was the female branch of the Irish-American Catholic organization. This collection consists of one volume of financial and membership information.

Anita Travers Thompson Family papers, 1884-1979. MC 232. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection (1884-1924, 1978) consists of papers of Anita Thompson; her parents John Jacob Thompson and Sarah Travers; her brother Stewart McKinley Thompson; and her aunts Anna Travers and Margaret Travers Ginste. The papers concern family matters; the Rock Springs coal mine near Sand Coulee, Montana; the Canyon Ferry Dam; student life at Montana State College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts in Bozeman; and miscellany.

Anna Boe Dahl scrapbook, 1940-1986. SC 909. Montana Historical Society Archives. Anna Boe Dahl of Plentywood, Montana, led the drive to found the Sheridan Rural Electric Cooperative of Medicine Lake in the 1940s and was active on a state and national level in the effort to bring electricity to rural areas. This scrapbook (1940-1986) contains correspondence, clippings, photographs, and miscellany regarding Dahl’s efforts and achievements.

Anna Caldwell Stiefvater reminiscence, 1954. SC 789. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection contains a six-page typed reminiscence by Anna Caldwell Stiefvater describing her experiences as a young city-raised bride learning to cope with farm life in eastern Montana in 1917.

Augusta Civic Society records, 1915-1960. SC 1735. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Augusta Civic Society was a women’s service organization in Augusta, Montana. The records consist of minutes, financial records, correspondence, membership lists, and miscellany.

Belle Winestine papers, Norman and Belle Fligelman Winestine collection, 1882-1985. MC 190. Montana Historical Society Archives. Belle Fligelman Winestine of Helena was active in the women’s suffrage movement in Montana, and both she and her sister Frieda were writers. Belle served as secretary to Jeannette Rankin during Rankin’s first term in Congress. This subgroup contains her correspondence; writings (fiction, poetry, and nonfiction); a Jeannette Rankin subject file; various Fligelman family materials; and a scrapbook kept during her years at the University of Wisconsin. The series of writings is arranged alphabetically by title for fiction, poetry, and nonfiction. (See also MC 144.)

Bertha and Valentine Clydesdale papers, Clydesdale Family papers, 1909-1991. SC 2247. Montana Historical Society Archives. Papers of the Clydesdale family consist of biographical material for Bertha S. and Thomas C. Clydesdale, including marriage and naturalization certificates; correspondence from Thomas C. Clydesdale during World War I; correspondence to Valentine Clydesdale from Cornelius F. Kelley; a reminiscence by Bertha and Valentine Clydesdale; the 1943-1946 Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps records and memorabilia for Valentine Clydesdale; various family writings; and miscellany.

Bertha Ballinger Aduddell interview, 1973-1974. SC 352. Montana Historical Society Archives. Bertha Ballinger Aduddell was born in Minnesota in 1885, then moved to Montana where she homesteaded from 1907 until World War I. In this interview she describes her childhood; her homesteading experiences near Grant, Montana; and her married life, including the birth of her children under primitive conditions. The interview is a typed transcript of an oral history interview done as part of the American Association of University Women (AAUW) Historical Memoirs Project.

Bertha Josephson Anderson reminiscence, 1940. SC 360. Montana Historical Society Archives. Bertha Anderson, a native of Denmark, and her husband, Peter Anderson, emigrated to Sidney, Montana, in 1889 to establish a homestead. Her reminiscence details her life in Denmark; the trip to Montana; and life on the homestead until about 1930. [This copy (1940) has been edited by her daughter, Camilla Anderson, and consists of excerpts from the original reminiscence.]

Bess Reed papers, 1901-1984. MC 336. Montana Historical Society Archives. Bess Reed served in the Montana Assembly from 1951-1961 as a Republican legislator from Missoula. This large collection includes correspondence and subject files on many issues with which she was prominently involved, including the School Foundation Program for public education, water pollution control, extension of Social Security to public employees, and gender equity. There are also extensive files pertaining to Reed’s involvement in local political organizations such as the Montana Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Club, Montana Federation of Republican Women’s Club, Parent-Teacher Organization, Missoula Chamber of Commerce, Montana Health Planning Council, Council on Aging, Montana Society for Crippled Children, Montana Story Project, Sojourners Club of Missoula, Soroptimist Club of Missoula, and United Way.

Bess Stone reminiscence, 1951. SC 1475. Montana Historical Society Archives. In her reminiscence, entitled “My Life,” Bess Stone discusses being raised on a ranch near Bozeman, Montana; attending school in Butte; and teaching in rural schools at Ross Fork in Fergus County and at several schools in Silver Bow and Gallatin Counties, particularly the Emerson School in Butte, where she worked for forty years. Bess also worked in Yellowstone National Park during the summers.

Bessie K. Monroe reminiscence, 1968. SC 1503. Montana Historical Society Archives. Bessie Monroe was a Hamilton, Montana, resident and newspaperwoman. Her reminiscence (1968) discusses her childhood on the Kerlee family homestead in the Tincup area near Darby during the 1890s.

Blanche Esther Hale Rasmussen reminiscence, undated. SC 2437. Montana Historical Society Archives. Blanche Rasmussen (b. 1895) describes growing up in numerous states as her father’s employment with the railroad required; her work as a telegrapher; her marriage; life in Harlowton, Montana; and the task of raising a large family.

Carolina Weigand Bremer reminiscence, 1878-1964. SC 1672. Montana Historical Society Archives. In this manuscript, compiled and edited from an oral interview, Carolina describes her family’s trip to Montana Territory in l878; homesteading near Great Falls; her marriage to Henry Bremer in l903; and their move to Collins, Montana, in l913.

Caroline Hanson McKay subgroup, Alexander McKay papers, 1857-1925. MC 112. Montana Historical Society Archives. Caroline Hanson McKay lived in Virginia City in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This subgroup consists of incoming correspondence regarding family issues and mining and real estate business; legal documents primarily related to family estates and land holdings; and calling cards.

Caroline McGill Induction Ceremony records, 2003. SC 2445. Montana Historical Society Archives. Dr. Caroline McGill was a physician in Butte during the early 20th century. The Caroline McGill Induction Ceremony records (March 6, 2003) include materials relating to induction of Dr. Caroline McGill into the Gallery of Outstanding Montanans on March 6, 2003, at the state capitol building in Helena. Included here are speeches, photographs, a timeline, and essays written and presented by family members, including niece Mary Johnson McWhorter and great-nephew Michael T. Johnson. There is also included “A Family view of Grandma and Grandpa McGill” by Mary Johnson McWhorter.

Carrie Berg papers, 1915-1939. SC 2417. Montana Historical Society Archives. Carrie Berg moved to Montana to homestead and became a teacher in Dawson County. In this reminiscence she discusses her family’s life in Pennsylvania and Minnesota; her early married life; filing and proving up on a homestead in Dawson County, Montana, following her husband’s death in 1915; and her teaching career in Montana through the early 1930s.

Carrie J. Jones reminiscence, 1893-1920. SC 1330. Montana Historical Society Archives. Carrie J. Jones was a pioneer Havre, Montana, resident. Her reminiscence, entitled “Reminiscence of Early Days in Havre” describes the town from 1893 to 1920.

Catharine Calk McCarty papers 1920-1972. SC 2293. Montana Historical Society Archives. Catharine Calk McCarty was a Glendive, Montana, area homesteader, Democratic legislator, and Home Service director for the Dawson County Red Cross. Papers consist of correspondence; property tax records; subject files concerning the American Legion Auxiliary, the Dawson County Veterans Advisory Board, and Glendive Leaseholds Inc.; speeches and writings concerning politics, history, and social service; and miscellany.

Cecillia Gibson Small biography, [1962?]. SC 141. Montana Historical Society Archives. Cecillia Gibson Small was a teacher in Cut Bank during the first half of the 20th century. This collection consists of a biographical manuscript entitled “Fifty Years of Friendship: A Tribute to Cecillia Gibson Small” by her longtime friend, Grace E. Doorenbos. The biography describes Cecillia’s childhood, her training as a teacher, her move to Montana, and her many community activities in Cut Bank; and it covers the years 1908 to 1954.

City Federation of Women’s Organizations records, 1925-1977. SC 2568. Montana Historical Society Archives. The records of the City Federation of Women’s Organizations of Billings, Montana, consist of minutes, treasurers’ reports, and summaries of minutes from various women’s organizations such as the Billings League of Catholic Women, the Billings Woman’s Club, Billings YWCA, Daughters of the Nile, Billings Mothers’ Club, the Polytechnic Club, and the Billings chapter of the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union.

Clara Kennedy papers 1867-1908. SC 1664. Montana Historical Society Archives. Clara Hart Kennedy was a Helena, Montana, resident. Papers (1867-1908) contain material concerning her first husband, Samuel S. Hart, assistant federal assessor for Montana Territory in 1870; and her second husband, George S. Kennedy, a mining superintendent for the Park City Mining Company. Included are correspondence; legal documents; and miscellany, including a certificate (April 14, 1908) verifying the election of H. H. Guthrie as Helena police judge.

Community Council of Cascade County records, 1948-1968. SC 1989. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Community Council of Cascade County developed out of the AAUW Child Study Group of Great Falls. It was organized to promote cooperation between various groups working for social change in Cascade County. Records consist of general correspondence, minutes and bylaws, constitutions, membership lists, reports, subject files, and miscellany. A large subject file contains material pertaining to the Council’s committee on Indian affairs, Indian poverty, Hill 57 in Great Falls, the Rocky Boy Reservation, and Sister Providencia. Additionally, the collection contains material relating to the Montana Conference of Social Welfare, the Montana Society for Mental Health, the Montana Health Planning Committee, the Business and Professional Women’s Club of Great Falls, and the Great Falls chapter of the American Association of University Women (AAUW).

Congregation Emanu-el Ladies’ Auxiliary records, Norman Winestine collection: Congregation Emanu-el and Fligelman’s, 1883-1953. MC 144. Montana Historical Society Archives. Within the larger Norman Winestine collection is a subgroup of the Ladies’ Auxiliary of the Congregation Emanu-El. This subgroup includes the correspondence, financial records, organizational materials, reports, Ladies’ Auxiliary records, and cemetery association records.

Current Topic Club records, 1892-1999. SC 2271. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Current Topic Club was a literary club created by Helena area women in 1892. These records consist of correspondence mostly relating to membership; memorials; financial records; various organizational records; a history entitled “Potpourri of the Current Topic Club, 1892-1992”; and miscellaneous records such as yearbooks and place cards.

Daisy Tuss Monkelin interview, 1969. SC 495. Montana Historical Society Archives. Daisy Tuss Monkelin emigrated with her family to central Montana from Croatia in the early 20th century when she was a young child. In this typed transcription of an oral interview by Anna Zellick, Daisy Monkelin reminisces about her life in the Lewistown area, including the discrimination she felt as an immigrant child; about her father, Peter Tuss; and about Croatian holidays and celebrations.

Daniel Webster Slayton and Lizzie Ellis Slayton papers, 1883-1934. MC 178. Montana Historical Society Archives. D. W. Slayton was a Lavina area sheep rancher, merchant, and politician. The collection consists of diaries kept by D. W. (1884-1927) describing daily life; by his wife, Lizzie (1917-1918, 1928, 1930-1934), describing her daily activities, social life, and health; and by their sixteen-year-old son Daniel (1907) describing school in Helena and Bozeman, friends, activities, and summer work on the ranch. The collection also contains correspondence (1883-1918) among the three, primarily between D. W. and Lizzie before their marriage in l887.

Delta Delta Delta. Helena Alumnae Chapter records, 1966-1973. Montana Historical Society Archives. SC 2342. This collection consists of three scrapbooks kept by the Helena, Montana, chapter ofthe Delta Delta Delta Alumnae. Scrapbooks include newspaper clippings, photographs of members and events, convention programs, and miscellany.

Edith Moore letters, Moore Family papers, 1862-1965. SC 2161. Montana Historical Society Archives. Edith Moore was the daughter of an early Montana miner and rancher. The Moore family ranched near Helmville in the early 1900s, and Edith’s letters in this collection describe ranching life in the 1930s.

Elizabeth Ann “Rose” Morrow Rust reminiscence, 1885-1909. SC 1415. Montana Historical Society Archives. This reminiscence (undated) by Elizabeth “Rose” Rust, daughter of William Morrow, describes her life in Basin and Butte, Montana, from 1885 to 1909. [Compiled by her daughter Harriette Dommes.]

Elizabeth Harrison subgroup, Harriet Miller and Elizabeth Harrison papers, 1909-2006; 1959-1968. MC 371. Montana Historical Society Archives. This subgroup includes materials from the years Elizabeth Harrison worked for the Montana Highway Commission. The Elizabeth Harrison subgroup contains two letters, printed material relating to her academic career, and miscellaneous materials.

Elizabeth Lochrie papers, 1890-1997. MC 291; A9:2-2. Montana Historical Society Archives. Elizabeth Lochrie was a western artist who grew up near Deer Lodge and later lived in Butte. In addition to painting portraits of American Indians in and near Glacier National Park (particularly the Blackfeet), Lochrie created children’s murals for the hospital at Galen; presented speeches on Montana and American Indians to service and women’s groups; and wrote about American Indians. The collection contains her subject files, personal correspondence, clippings, and memorabilia.

Elizabeth Ruth Tyler reminiscence, 1954. SC 873. Montana Historical Society Archives. Elizabeth Ruth Tyler was a homesteader near Glendive during the homestead boom in the early 20th century. This collection consists of a carbon copy of a two-page typed reminiscence in which she relates some anecdotes of her early years in Montana.

Ella Green Gifford letters, 1916. SC 2214. Montana Historical Society Archives. Ella Green Gifford was a Butte, Montana, resident. This collection consists of three letters she wrote to her son Bennie Green in Virginia City, and one letter she received from another son, Al Green, in Wilder, Montana. The letters discuss day-to-day concerns and the hardships her son experienced on a small ranch in Wilder.

Emma A. Ingalls papers, 1919-1938. SC 1940. Montana Historical Society Archives. Emma A. Ingalls was one of Montana’s first two women elected to the state legislature, along with Margaret Hathaway, and served two terms, beginning in 1917. In 1889 she co-founded the Interlake, which became Kalispell’s daily newspaper, with her husband, Clayton Ingalls. Additionally, she managed the family ranch and alfalfa operation. In a special legislative session in 1920, Ms. Ingalls introduced the bill to ratify the Woman’s Suffrage Amendment to the U. S. Constitution. Her collection includes general correspondence; subject files on child welfare, women’s issues, and the Republican Party and candidates; notes on government and politics;  and brochures on prohibition, the Anti-Saloon League in Montana, the potato rebellion, and immigration; and clippings on political topics.

Esther Combes Vance papers, 1904-1977. MC 153. Montana Historical Society Archives. Esther Combes Vance was a pioneer woman airplane pilot and member of the Ninety Nines, an organization of women pilots. The papers include personal correspondence, diaries, miscellaneous printed material about the Ninety Nines, and scrapbooks about her flying career. Papers regarding the career of her husband, Earl Vance, a civilian and military pilot, are also included in this collection.

Esther Lodge No. 31 (Jewish Ladies’ Aid Society) subgroup, Congregation Beth Aaron records, 1915-1994. Montana Historical Society Archives. MC 369. The Billings B’nai B’rith Women No. 31, Esther Lodge No. 31, was a Jewish Ladies’ Aid Society in Billings. This subgroup consists of over seventy years of records of the group, including minor correspondence, financial and organizational records, membership records, minutes from meetings, and printed material such as the B’nai B’rith Women Grand District Lodge No. 4 convention proceedings from1932-1946.

Etta Smalley Bangs reminiscence, 1910-1954. SC 116. Montana Historical Society Archives. Etta Smalley was a homesteader and schoolteacher at a one-room schoolhouse at Inverness, Montana. The reminiscence discusses her experiences as a single woman homesteader in Montana’s “Hi-Line” area between 1910 and 1914. In June 1914 she married William Bangs, and they continued farming at the homestead until moving to Havre in 1954.

Evelena O. Marsh O’Neal reminiscences, 1955. SC 169. Montana Historical Society Archives. Evelena O’Neal’s reminiscences (1955) describe her steamboat journey to Montana Territory in 1883; and her life at Fort Carroll, Rocky Point, Big Sandy, and Chinook.

Evelyn J. Cameron and Ewen S. Cameron papers, 1893-1929. MC 226. Montana Historical Society Archives. Evelyn J. Cameron was a pioneer photographer and rancher in eastern Montana. Her husband, Ewen S. Cameron, raised polo ponies and studied and wrote about wildlife, particularly birds, of eastern Montana. The collection consists of thirty-five diaries kept by Evelyn documenting daily life on the ranch; her journal of notes, poems, and clippings; Evelyn’s letters to and from family members; postcards and greeting cards; a scrapbook on wildlife; various articles and manuscripts written by Ewen; and homestead papers.

First Presbyterian Church records, 1881-1923. SC 97. Montana Historical Society Archives. The First Presbyterian Church of Helena, Montana, was founded August 1, 1869, and formally organized June 15, 1872, by Rev. Sheldon Jackson. The records in this collection consist primarily of late 19th- and early 20th-century records and reports from several of the church’s organizations, including the Building Committee and dedication program, the Ladies Aid Society, the Sunday School, the Woman’s Missionary Society, and the Young Peoples’ Society of Christian Endeavor. Also included are various church-related publications.

Flora McKay McNulty papers, 1872-1938. MC 261. Montana Historical Society Archives. Flora McKay McNulty lived in Virginia City and was active in several clubs and organizations. This collection consists of correspondence relating to family events, mining, and real estate; financial records; legal documents; school notes and records from Virginia City grade school through Chicago Women’s Medical College; and subject files on prohibition and social organizations. Subject files include the records of several clubs and societies to which Flora McNulty belonged, including the Union Circle of King’s Daughters, the Ladies of the Maccabees, and the Ladies’ Reading Club and Literary Society of Virginia City.

Florence Kerr Facey letter, 1923. SC 1771. Montana Historical Society Archives. Florence Facey was a legislator from Malta. The letter is from Ms. Facey to her mother, Mrs. John J. Kerr, and describes Facey’s experiences as a first-term Republican representative and her appointment as the first woman on the House Committee on Revenue and Taxation.

Florence E. Middleton reminiscence, 1939. SC 2402. Montana Historical Society Archives. Florence Middleton’s reminiscence, entitled “Sing a Song of Indians,” recounts her experiences as a teacher for the Indian Service between 1916 and 1946. She taught at reservation schools in Montana, Minnesota, Oregon, Nevada, and California. In Montana, she taught at Rocky Boy and Lame Deer.

Florence Magill Armitage diary, 1909. SC 1411. Montana Historical Society Archives. Florence Magill Armitage was a teacher in Cameron, Montana. This diary, kept by Florence Magill Armitage in 1909, relates her experiences as a single woman living in Cameron.

Fortnightly Club records, 1890-2005. MC 203. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Fortnightly Club was founded by Mrs. Frances W. Wickes to study English literature. It was the first organization in Montana to function as a literary circle. The collection (1890-2005) consists of incoming correspondence, financial records, minutes, organizational records, miscellany, attendance records, outlines of study, programs, histories of the club, a scrapbook, and clippings.

Frances C. Elge papers, 1921-1991. A1:4-2. Montana Historical Society Archives. Frances Elge was the first woman in Montana to become a county attorney. This collection consists of broadsides, certificates, correspondence, diplomas, memorabilia, subject files, yearbooks, newspapers clippings, and photographs. These papers document her career as a lawyer and a judge, as well as her interests in various women’s issues, including the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), the Women’s Lobbyist Fund, the International Women’s Year, and Jeannette Rankin.

Frances Holly Poor papers, 1916-1927. SC 2037. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection consists of a daybook and a diary kept by Francis Holly Poor while she attended Butte High School, and the State University of Montana in Missoula (now University of Montana). She earned a bachelor’s degree in English with an endorsement to teach. Also included are commencement programs; teacher’s examination questions from 1922; and miscellany such as pamphlets, postcards, and clippings.

Frances Pryde Lenahan diary, 1945-1946. SC 2153. Montana Historical Society Archives. Frances Pryde Lenahan was a WAVE in the Navy during World War II. This collection consists of a typescript copy of a diary that she kept during her year and a half in the service. The diary describes her experiences traveling from Missoula to the east coast, and her work in communications while stationed in New York, Washington, DC, and Seattle.

Freda Augusta Beazley papers, 1960-1975. MC 187. Montana Historical Society Archives. Freda Beazley was a member of the Assiniboine Tribe of the Fort Peck Reservation, Montana. She served as vice-president of the National Congress of American Indians, president of the Affiliated Tribes of the Northwest, and rural area coordinator for the Montana State Office of Economic Opportunity. This collection of her papers includes correspondence; desk diaries; clippings; and publications and subject files on topics such as the Affiliated Tribes of Northwest Indians, Knowles Dam, and Helena Association of the National Congress of American Indians.

Glacier Region International Toastmistress Clubs records 1959-1980. Montana Historical Society Archives. SC 2540. Toastmistress Clubs were first created in 1938 to develop and promote women’s public speaking skills and engage them in informed and unprejudiced discussion on all sorts of topics. This collection consists of two scrapbooks (1959-1980) containing the correspondence, conference schedules, newspaper clippings, and photographs relating to Toastmistress Clubs in Montana. Local clubs mentioned are Butte, Bozeman, Deer Lodge, Helena, Kalispell, Livingston, Mineral County, Missoula, Shelby, and Whitefish. Montana became part of the Glacier Region in the 1960s, which included Alberta and Saskatchewan.

Grace Marron Gilmore papers, 1884-1943. SC 319. Montana Historical Society Archives. Grace Virginia Bendon Marron Gilmore was a prolific writer and has been called “Glendive’s first resident historian.” She married a cattle rancher in eastern Montana, and later in life became the wife of a retired sheep rancher. In addition to writing, Ms. Gilmore served in France with the National Catholic War Council during World War I. The collection contains letters and correspondence; a diary kept by an unidentified person; deeds and a contract; the marriage certificate for Grace Bendon and Edward Marron; second husband James W. Gilmore’s will; miscellaneous papers; and speeches and writings of Grace Marron Gilmore, including “The Home Library,” “The Prairie Fire,” and “Prominent Women of Today,” which were published in the Independent Voice of Eastern Montana, a progressive weekly publication that later became the Glendive Independent.

Grace Stoddard Mason letters, 1913-1914. SC 1699. Montana Historical Society Archives. Grace Stoddard Mason enjoyed needlework and dress-making. This collection consists of twenty-four detailed letters from Grace Mason to her family in Kalamazoo, Michigan, describing her life in Culbertson. Topics include the weather, sewing projects, horseback and automobile rides, church aid society luncheons, drunken neighbors, and other tidbits of daily life.

Grace Vance Erickson papers, 1863-1958. MC 286. Montana Historical Society Archives. Grace Vance Erickson was an amateur historian and the wife of Montana governor John Edward Erickson. This collection consists of biographical information; correspondence; diaries; press releases; speeches; subject files on her historic research; miscellany; scrapbooks, including one on the Community Council of Kalispell and the Women’s Committee of the Council of National Defense; and clippings. The collection also includes information on A. M. Vance, Grace Vance Erickson’s father.

Grand Army of the Republic, Montana Department records, 1881-1941. Montana Historical Society Archives. MC 205. This collection consists of records of the Montana Department of the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) and of the Woman’s Relief Corps. Records include correspondence, financial records, organizational materials, rosters, minutes, and miscellany for locals in Anaconda, Butte, Boulder Valley, Columbia Falls, Deer Lodge, Fort Custer, Great Falls, Hamilton, Helena, and Missoula.

Hamilton Woman’s Club records, 1913-1989. MC 212. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Hamilton Woman’s Club started in 1911 as the Mothers’ Club in Hamilton. The club’s name was changed to the Hamilton Woman’s Club in 1913, and in 1914 it became a member of the Montana Federation of Women’s Clubs. The club is a civic organization that has been involved in numerous public, educational, and civic improvements, including the establishment of the Carnegie Library in Hamilton and the development of a county health council. Records include correspondence; financial records, budgets, and reports; minutes; organizational records; membership lists; and miscellany.

Harriet Miller subgroup, Harriet Miller and Elizabeth Harrison papers, 1909-2006; 1959-1968. Montana Historical Society Archives. MC 371. Harriet Miller was Montana’s Superintendent of Public Instruction for three terms, from 1956 to 1968, and mayor of Santa Barbara, California, from 1995 to 2001. The collection primarily consists of bound copies of various speeches Ms. Miller made during her tenure as superintendent; letters, printed material, school notes, and records for her mother (Vera Crome Miller); and numerous clippings (1961-2007). A subgroup contains documents relating to her companion of over forty years, Elizabeth Neill Harrison. (See separate entry for this subgroup.)

Harriet Shober Nolan subgroup, Cornelius B. Nolan papers, 1887-1932. MC 82. Montana Historical Society Archives. The subgroup for Harriet Shober Nolan consists primarily of correspondence and reports concerning her work for the American Red Cross during World War I.

Harrison Woman’s Club records, 1908-1970. MC 342. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Harrison Woman’s Club was a local chapter of the Montana Federation of Women’s Clubs. Its predecessor, the Mystic Circle and Daughters of Leisure (1908-1910) was a ladies’ social club, which grew into the Harrison Woman’s Club. In turn, the Harrison Woman’s Club formed the Home Demonstration Club in the 1950s. This collection includes correspondence, meeting minutes, records, scrapbooks, club constitutions, clippings, and miscellany from each of these sister clubs.

Helen Fitzgerald Sanders collection, 1886-1955, SC 223. Montana Historical Society Archives. Helen Sanders was a Helena and Butte, Montana, author and historian. This collection (1886-1955) consists of research materials, including John X. Biedler’s draft of his reminiscence, compiled by her during the writing of “John X. Biedler: Vigilante,” by her and William Bertsche Jr.

Helen P. Clarke papers, 1872-1934. SC 1153. Montana Historical Society Archives. Helen Piotopawaka Clarke was Lewis and Clark County Superintendent of Schools and a teacher for the Bureau of Indian Affairs. She was active in trying to improve the lives of Indians on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation. This collection (1872-1934) consists of biographical materials, an application for enrollment in the Blackfeet Tribe, and general correspondence.

Helena Business and Professional Women’s Club records, 1947-1977. MC 297. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Helena Business and Professional Women’s Club was formed in 1931 as a local club within District II of the Montana Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Club. This collection consists of financial records, organizational records, and miscellaneous records such as scrapbooks and yearbooks.

Helena Business Women’s Suffrage Club minutes, 1896-1903. SC 976. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Helena Business Women’s Suffrage Club was a professional organization of local businesswomen promoting suffrage for women. The collection contains a minute book for the Helena Business Women’s Suffrage Club. The first entry is for the organization’s first meeting, held on June 13, 1896, and the final entry is for a meeting held on September 22, 1903.

Helena Woman’s Center records, 1975-1983. MC 246. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Helena Woman’s Center of Helena, Montana, was a women’s support organization founded in 1975 to offer aid to victims of violence against women. Records include subject files, correspondence, case files, financial records, legal documents, minutes, and organizational materials. Subject files concern such topics as the Battered Women Task Force, displaced homemakers, gay and lesbian rights, the Montana Coalition to Stop Violence Against Women, the Montana Pro-choice Coalition, the Rape Awareness Program, the Women’s Support Line, sexual harassment, and the Women’s History Mural.

Helena Woman’s Club records, 1896-1995. MC 303. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Helena Woman’s Club was a local chapter of the Montana Federated Women’s Club. Records include the club’s financial records, articles of incorporation, minutes of board meetings of its various departments, and yearbooks.

Hester Ferguson Henshall journal, [August 1903 or 1904]. SC 1821. Montana Historical Society Archives. Hester Ferguson Henshall was a Bozeman, Montana, resident and local naturalist. Small Collection 1821 contains a hardbound, typed journal from 1904, entitled “Trip Through Yellowstone National Park.” The journal is illustrated with photographs, the author’s watercolors and drawings of Yellowstone flora and fauna, and clippings.

Hilda Cunningham papers, 1949-1981. A6:1-1. Montana Historical Society Archives. Hilda Cunningham was a weaver and an active member of the Weaver’s Guild in Montana. The collection documents her experience as a weaver and includes newsletters, correspondence, printed material, weaving samples, patterns, and clippings.

Hilda Nelson Yarlett papers, 1900-1948. SC 1954. Montana Historical Society Archives. Hilda Yarlett’s parents, Lars and Anna Neilson (surname changed to Nelson) emigrated from Denmark to Deer Lodge, Montana, in 1893. Hilda Yarlett taught in various Montana schools prior to settling in Libby, Montana, where she taught until her death in 1955. This collection consists of papers of Lars and Hilda Nelson, and Lewis Yarlett. Lars Nelson’s papers consist of his naturalization documents. Hilda Nelson’s papers include a school grade report, teaching certificates, diplomas, and correspondence concerning a teaching position. Lewis Yarlett’s papers include a discharge from the army and biographies of Froeda and Hilda Nelson.

Hilma Hanson Kimball and Mary Kimball subgroups, Albert B. Kimball family papers, 1864-1957. MC 188. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection consists of papers of three generations of the Kimball and Hanson Families and is arranged into six subgroups. The Albert and Hilma Hanson Kimball subgroup includes correspondence, diaries, and miscellany such as school records and scrapbooks. The Mary Kimball subgroup includes correspondence, speeches and writings, high school and college scrapbooks, and clippings about her career and theatrical avocation.

Idora Z. Smith Guthrie diaries, 1871-1937. MC 201. Montana Historical Society Archives. A teacher in Helena, Montana, Idora Smith kept diaries describing her daily life, family, activities, teaching career, mining and homesteading experiences, and sales career. Also included in this collection are two unidentified diaries (1871-1872) and miscellaneous clippings.

Irene Waugh Gray reminiscence, 1905-1920. SC 758. Montana Historical Society Archives. In her reminiscence Irene Gray (1895-1998) discusses her life in Hamilton, Montana, from ca. 1905 to 1920, including the family’s operation of a large apple orchard.

Irma Brown Reeder papers, 1927-1963. MC 102. Montana Historical Society Archives. Irma Reeder was a Big Sandy, Montana, schoolteacher. She later moved to Livingston where she owned and operated a motel. This collection consists of thirteen of her diaries (1927-1963). Also included are a diary (1930-1932) kept by S. Eugene Reeder while in Russia as a tractor expert; and letters, cards, programs, and clippings.

Jeanne Ironside papers, 1923-1939. SC 344. Montana Historical Society Archives. Jeanne Ironside was the half-sister of Nancy Cooper Russell (Charles M. Russell’s wife) and once trekked alone from Valdez, Alaska, to Fairbanks. Her papers include correspondence; her last will and testament; various clippings and writings concerning Charlie Russell; a scrapbook; a description of the Montana state capitol building; a journal of a trip to Hawai’i; and an essay, “Marchons! Chronicle of a Girl who Mushed Alone over Richardson Trail, Alaska.”

Jeannette Rankin papers, 1916-1919. MC 147. Montana Historical Society Archives. Jeannette Rankin (1880-1973) was the first woman elected to the U.S. Congress. Rankin was a pacifist, suffragist, prohibitionist, and social activist. As congresswoman she voted against declaration of war in 1917 and again in 1941. The collection (1916-1919, and 1941) consists primarily of correspondence from her Montana constituents and subject files on issues important to her.

Jeannette Rankin (et al.) letters, Rankin Family subgroup, Wellington D. Rankin papers, 1904-1969. MC 288. Montana Historical Society Archives. This subgroup contains letters between family members Mary Rankin Bragg, Louise Replogle Rankin Galt, Grace Rankin Kinney, Edna Rankin McKinnon, and Jeannette Rankin. In addition, Jeannette Rankin’s papers include printed material she collected on various political and social topics such as the plight of Jews in Europe, women’s suffrage, the trade union movement, and women in industry. There are also a number of speeches, subject files on her 1940 Congressional campaign, and clippings.

Lacy Family papers 1878-1958, SC 2139. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Lacy family had a ranch in the Moiese Valley, Montana. This collection consists of photocopies of two reminiscences: “My Eighty Years” (1958) by Earnest E. Lacy, and “Lou’s Story” (undated) concerning Earnest’s wife, Lula Asa Murphy Armstrong Lacy, written by Ruth Lacy Moore and Robert R. Lacy. Their reminiscences describe growing up in Missouri and Indiana, and life on the ranch in Moiese Valley. [RESTRICTION: no commercial use of collection before 2020; no copying of “Lou’s Story” for use outside of MHS without author’s consent].

Laura Brown Zook reminiscences, undated. SC 292. Montana Historical Society Archives. Laura Zook was an early Montana schoolteacher and librarian. These reminiscences were prepared as term papers in 1953 by Janice Kampschror and in 1964 by Cheryl Dee Lewis for Merrill Burlingame’s Montana history class at Montana State College. In them, Laura Zook reminisces about her life in the infant community of Miles City at the turn of the century, her early education, and various notable events in the area.

League of Women Voters of Montana records, 1921-1989. MC 180. Montana Historical Society Archives. The League of Women Voters is a nonpartisan political organization. Records of the Montana branch include general correspondence arranged by president, financial records, minutes, organizational materials, reports to the national office, subject files, miscellany, and clippings. There are also records for local branches of the League around the state.

Lillian E. H. Culver papers, 1890-1931. SC 334. Montana Historical Society Archives. Lillian Culver was a Centennial Valley, Montana, farm wife. This collection includes correspondence, financial records, and miscellany. A subgroup contains some incoming letters and financial records for her husband, William N. Culver.

Lilly B. Stearns papers, 1913-1914. SC 2000. Montana Historical Society Archives. Lilly Stearns homesteaded near Glasgow, Montana. These papers consist of her correspondence with the U.S. General Land Office concerning her application for a homestead under the Enlarged Homestead Act, including a letter describing the work she had done, the problems she encountered, the plight of her children, and the lack of support from her husband.

Lucile Speer writing, 1971-1972. SC 1569. Montana Historical Society Archives. Lucile Speer was a Missoula, Montana, librarian and delegate to the 1972 Montana Constitutional Convention. This collection consists of an edited draft of “We, the People…,” an introduction to the Montana Constitutional Convention, and a citizen’s guide to the convention.

Lucy Ann Nichols papers, 1912-1915. SC 137. Montana Historical Society Archives. Lucy Nichols and her husband homesteaded in Mildred, a small community in southeastern Montana. Papers consist of eight letters to her children in Waupaca, Wisconsin, describing her life on the homestead.

Lulu Benjamin letters, 1915-1921. SC 12. Montana Historical Society Archives. Lulu Benjamin and her infant son journeyed to Montana sometime during the mid-1890s and assumed a homestead near Alzada in the extreme southeastern portion of the state. Although faced with hardship and destitution she made a home there not only for herself and her son, but also for several homeless girls. Included in this collection are outgoing correspondence written to Mary Esther Vilas Hanks and her mother in Madison, Wisconsin, and four photographs. Most of the letters describe at length the living conditions on the prairie in the early 20th century, and the personal and financial problems encountered while acting as a single foster-mother for a succession of orphan girls while at the same time tending to her homestead.

Lulu G. Allard papers, 1921-1946. SC 179. Montana Historical Society Archives. Lulu G. Allard was an adopted member of the Salish Tribe of Montana. This collection consists of materials relating to her efforts to receive annuity payments as a tribal member. Included is a stipulation from a court case concerning 1921 water rights on the Flathead Indian Reservation; copies of letters from Senator B. K. Wheeler; a fee simple land patent for lots on the reservation; and a letter from the tribal enrollment committee addressing Mrs. Allard and discussing the issue of termination of the Flathead Reservation.

Lydia Slayton Hogan diaries, 1932-1971. MC 241. Montana Historical Society Archives. Lydia Elizabeth Slayton Hogan lived in Joliet, Montana. This collection consists of ten diaries written between 1932 and 1971, describing her family, friends, and daily life in this small ranching community.

Mabel E. Tuchscherer papers, 1976-1978. SC 1742. Montana Historical Society Archives. Mabel Tuchscherer was an Anaconda, Montana, physician and the author of Petticoats and Stethoscopes: The Story of Montana’s Women Physicians, a book commissioned by the Montana Medical Association. This collection consists of research materials, including correspondence, and a typed manuscript for Petticoats and Stethoscopes.

Madison County Federated Women’s Club writings, 1925-1931. SC 1382. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Madison County Federated Women’s Club was formed to compile the history of Madison County, Montana. Melvina J. Lott headed up the project and did much of the writing. Other writers included Frances Albright, Eunice M. Holbert, Mrs. G. W. Rightenour, Florence E. Jeffers, Laviga Noble Scheytt, Mrs. Henry M. Rundell, Eva Moger, and Hester Carmin. Included are histories of many of the communities in the county from 1863 through the 1920s and writings on as a variety of topics, such as gold discoveries, the vigilantes, pioneers, the Lewis and Clark Expedition, and political developments.

Maida McCartney papers, 1975, undated. SC 1586. Montana Historical Society Archives. Maida McCartney of Chinook spent nearly twenty years as a pioneer woman radio broadcaster on Havre’s radio station KOJM, where she hosted the popular daily program, the “Chinook Hour,” from 1947 to 1966. Interestingly, she had radio equipment set up at her own home so that she could both work and attend to her family during these years. In 1981, she was made an honorary member of the Blackfeet Tribe by Chief Earl Old Person. This collection contains biographical information; a transcript of an interview by Norma Ashby, November 23, 1975, as part of the “American Woman in Radio and Television” oral history project; and correspondence.

Margaret Henderson Brennan subgroup, Brennan Family papers, 1879-1991. MC 118. Montana Historical Society Archives. Margaret Belle Henderson Brennan was affiliated with the Home Demonstration Clubs of Montana She served as president of the Sidney’s Women’s Club and as District Chairman of the Diocean Council of Catholic Women. She was a strong supporter of the Democratic Party in Montana, working with her husband on many campaigns.The Margaret Henderson Brennan subgroup consists of biographical materials for the Henderson family; a scrapbook containing family greeting cards, graduation announcements, and information about major national events, especially World War II; and clippings concerning the career of her husband, James Brennan.

Margaret Neill subgroup, Neill Family papers, 1886-1964. MC 248. Margaret and John Neill were residents of Helena. Within this large collection is the Margaret G. Neill subgroup, which consists of eight series: general correspondence; court papers; minor financial records; legal documents; speeches about her Red Cross work; subject files concerning the World War I “Liberty Loan” drive and Helena real estate; a minute book for the First Presbyterian Church Helping Hand Society and a financial journal for the Presbyterian Church Ladies Aid Society; and clippings concerning Red Cross war work.

Margaret Reess papers 1902-1966. SC 2154. Montana Historical Society Archives. Margaret Reess was a teacher at Helena Middle School in Helena, Montana. This collection consists of an album (1966) of testimonial letters from her students and colleagues upon Ms. Reess’s retirement from teaching. Also included are poetry and writings, a letter to her father, Peter C. Reess, from Anthonette Falkenberg in Kristiania (Oslo), Norway. The letter and writings are written in Norwegian.

Margaret S. Davis papers, 1966-1992. MC 233. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection consists of subject files, correspondence, memoranda, research notes, and miscellany kept by Helena resident Margaret Davis, who was active in several women’s organizations. The collection has been arranged into four subgroups: General and Personal (1966-1991); League of Women Voters United States (1983-1989); League of Women Voters Education Fund (1984-1988); and Montana Hunger Coalition (1988-1990). The General and Personal subgroup materials concern Davis’s activities in local organizations such the Holter Museum of Art, her bid for state legislature in 1974, and her family.

Margaret Sieben Hibbard interview, 1968. SC1663. Montana Historical Society Archives. Margaret Sieben Hibbard, a Helena, Montana, resident discusses her collection of historic vehicles, including Marcus Daly’s show buggy, Frank S. Lusk’s Landau, and C. A. Broadwater’s sleigh. She also discusses her discovery and purchase of the trap once owned by Lillie Aston, first madam of “The Castle,” and prostitution in Helena. [Typed transcript of taped interview, December 1968.]

Margery Hunter Brown papers, 1956-1995. A2:4-1. Montana Historical Society Archives. Margery Hunter Brown was a professor at the University of Montana School of Law. She also was founder and first director of the UM Indian Law Clinic and Associate Justice of the Court of Appeals for the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes. She served eight years on the Montana Human Rights Commission. Brown was a member of the Montana Constitution Revision Commission and was a leader in the League of Women Voters. Papers consist of subject files, correspondence, and printed materials related to her work.

Margot Liberty report, 1956. SC 441. Montana Historical Society Archives. Margot Liberty taught at a government school in Birney, on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation. In 1956 she also conducted ethnographic studies of the Northern Cheyenne for the Bureau of Indian Affairs for this report. The report includes a population study of the residents of Birney; a family group study; an economic study of the Northern Cheyenne; a plan and idea study; and a report summary. Margot Liberty went on to receive a PhD in Anthropology in 1973 and co-authored or co-edited books on the Northern Cheyenne, including Cheyenne Memories and A Northern Cheyenne Album.

Marian McElroy reminiscence, ca. 1950. SC 1347. Montana Historical Society Archives. Marian McElroy was a Bigfork, Montana, resident. This reminiscence discusses primarily her work as a cook.

Marion Sherrard Oneal papers, 1910-1962. MC 22. Montana Historical Society Archives. Marion Sherrard Oneal was a Montana writer, teacher, and homesteader. This collection consists of correspondence (1916-1962); copies of published articles and poems (1910-1960) reflecting her experiences teaching and homesteading at Big Breezes and farming near Libby; and an unpublished article on the town of Bannack.

Martha Edgerton Plassmann papers, 1863-1939. MC 78. Montana Historical Society Archives. Martha Edgerton Plassmann (1850-1936) was a Montana pioneer, historian, and journalist. The collection consists of her autobiography and over 500 historical articles written for the Great Falls Tribune and the Montana News Association during the 1920s and 1930s. The articles, based on her own memories and on research, cover a wide range of topics, especially fur trappers, explorers, and vigilantes. There are also typescript copies of letters from Mary Edgerton to Martha; incoming and outgoing letters of reminiscence and historical research; and correspondence reflecting Mrs. Plassmann’s interest in the welfare of Montana’s Indian population.

Martha Ellen Fox Pike reminiscence, 1881-1909. SC 641. Montana Historical Society Archives. Martha Fox’s reminiscence (undated) describes an overland journey in 1881 from Texas to New Mexico; her life in New Mexico, California, and Arizona; her trip to Montana in 1896; and her life in the mining camp of Sylvanite and the lumber town of Libby from 1897 to 1909.

Mary Bell and Martha Bell papers, Bell Family papers, 1887-1997. MC 294. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection consists of papers from various members of the Bell family of Helena, Montana, including Mary Bell (mother), William S. Bell (father), and Martha Bell (daughter). Papers consists of biographical materials; correspondence primarily between Mary (Millie) and William; diaries for Mary and Martha; and writings on life in Helena and the Congregational churches of Montana. The writings also include an article by Martha Bell titled “Special Women’s Collections in United States Libraries.”

Mary Long Alderson papers, 1894-1936. SC 122. Montana Historical Society Archives. Mary Long Alderson (1860-1940) was very active in women’s rights issues, in the campaign for equal suffrage, and as a member of the Women’s Christian Temperence Union. This collection contains manuscript drafts of “A Half Century of Progress for Montana Women,” concerning the women’s rights movement in Montana. Also included are two biographical sketches (one of Ellen Trent Story, wife of Bozeman pioneer Nelson Story) and three small scrapbooks on the selection of the bitterroot as Montana’s state flower.

Mary Lou Skinner Ross papers, 1919-1996. SC 2399. Montana Historical Society Archives. Mary Lou Skinner Ross was the author of Thoughts While Ironing, published in 1981. She was a homesteader, rural schoolteacher, public health educator, and spiritualist. This collection includes family correspondence primarily regarding her mother and between Ms. Ross and friends; three diaries; a subject file on her homestead at Biddle, Montana; school papers; and writings, including “The Questioning Journey to Acknowledged Meaning” published in Exceptional Human Experience: Studies of the Unitive Spontaneous Imaginal in 1996. There are also two versions of an autobiography by Alice Shove Conger-Hunter, an aunt. There are clippings concerning several relatives including her grandmother Louisa Shove Conger, her mother Hazel Conger Heaton, and Elizabeth Heaton, an aunt.

Mary MacLane letters, Maclane Family papers, 1895-1929. SC 2171. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection consists primarily of letters written by Mary MacLane to her mother, Mrs. H. G. Klenze, between 1902 and1907. Also included are other family letters and miscellany. A letter dated 1832 is from the Fosdick/Thayer family. An oversized extended MacLane/Thayer family tree is part of the collection, which also includes an obituary for Mary MacLane from the Helena Daily Independent.

Mary Matovich reminiscence, 1956. SC 457. Montana Historical Society Archives. Born in 1884, Mary Matovich was a Croatian American homesteader along the Musselshell River in central Montana. There she raised a large family during the homestead boom years and the Great Depression. In her reminiscence, Mary Matovich recounts her years homesteading and raising a family between the years 1907 and 1935.

Mary McKay Herhold Bothell Swanze subgroup, Alexander McKay papers, 1857-1925. MC 112. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Mary McKay Herhold Bothwell Swanze (1876-1925) subgroup consists of incoming correspondence (1876-1910) mainly from the McKay family; financial records; legal documents regarding mining leases and patents; and calling cards and miscellaneous notes. Mary McKay was a member of the Union Circle of King’s Daughters (Virginia City, Montana) and the Ladies of the Maccabees. See also: Flora McNulty Collection

Mary Pauline Loberg Holter subgroup, Holter Family papers, 1861-1968. MC 80. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Holter family subgroups contain correspondence and other materials by and between various family members and provide information concerning not only the family’s business activities and investments, but also the growth and development of Helena and the vicinity. Of greatest interest to someone studying 19th-century women will be the subgroup for Anton M. Holter’s wife, Mary Pauline Loberg Holter, which covers the period 1872 to 1914.

Mattie T. Cramer papers, 1888-1958. MC 255. Montana Historical Society Archives. Mattie T. Cramer was a traveling saleswoman who moved to Montana where she became a homesteader and newspaperwoman. In addition to her diaries, the collection consists of editorial and feature articles written for publication, and approximately 160 letters written to her from all over the United States by people requesting information on homesteading in Montana in the years 1913 to 1915.

May Anderson Vontver reminiscence, 1971-1972. SC 958. Montana Historical Society Archives. In this transcribed reminiscence, May Vontver discusses her early life as a Swedish immigrant in Nebraska in the early 1900s; teaching and homesteading in central Montana; work in the influenza hospital in Lewistown in 1918; and life in the 1930s with her husband Simon Vontver at the Cat Creek oil fields. The original interview was recorded by Ester Murray, 1971-1973, as part of the American Association of University Women (AAUW) Historical Memoirs Project.

Melinda Alexander papers, 1901-1918. SC 1888. Montana Historical Society Archives. Melinda Alexander lived in Kalispell and was a prolific writer, an engaging speaker, and a political activist who championed socialism and feminism in the early 20th century. This collection contains an undated reminiscence by Melinda Alexander entitled “The Voyage of Hotel De Bum,” describing a 1901 wagon trip from Wheatland, Wyoming, to the Flathead Lake area of western Montana; a National Party call for Montana conventions and approval of the National Party platform (1918); Melinda Alexander’s columns on socialism and feminism from the Flathead Socialist; and a brochure for her campaign for county commissioner. Melinda Alexander’s 1901-1902 diary (transcribed by her granddaughter, Melinda Hurst) can be found in the Henry Elwood Collection, MC 309.

Menard Family papers, 1886-1935. A7:4-7. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection of papers from the Menard family consists of correspondence (1916, 1930); financial records (1891-1935); land, naturalization, and other legal records (1896-1923); writings, in French (undated); and various certificates (1886-1931) of Israel and Philomene Menard; their children Raoul, Brondel, and Marie; and Marie’s husband, Arthur Stuart, and their son, Art Stuart Jr.

Meta Gallow Mees interview, 1969 Nov. 26. SC 467. Montana Historical Society Archives. Meta Gallow Mees homesteaded south of Billings in the early 1900s. In this interview Meta Mees describes her life on the homestead at Blue Creek, relations with the neighboring Crow Tribe, and her experiences running a dairy farm at Billings and Carterville from 1910 to 1928. This interview was conducted as part of the AAUW-Billings Chapter Historical Memoirs Project.

Miles City Women’s Club records 1966-1988. SC 2307. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Miles City Women’s Club is a local affiliate of the Federation of Women’s Clubs. This collection consists of photocopied records of the Miles City Women’s Club, including meeting agendas, minutes, treasurer’s reports, attendance, membership lists, and project reports.

Montana Alpha Delta Kappa scrapbook, 1959-1969. SC 1956. Montana Historical Society Archives. Alpha Delta Kappa is an international honorary society for women educators, providing an exchange of ideas between teachers and other women involved in education. This collection consists of a scrapbook kept by the sorority’s historian and includes photographs of conventions and officers, clippings, convention programs and favors, and a songbook.

Montana-American Mothers’ Bicentennial Project records, 1975-1976. SC 1220. Montana Historical Society Archives. The American Mothers’ Bicentennial Project sponsored the writing of biographical sketches of Montana pioneer women. This collection contains the thirty-eight sketches produced by the project; and correspondence to and from Lucille Middleton, Montana coordinator of the project. Please refer to the catalog record for a complete list of participating Montana women.

Montana Cowbelles, Inc. records, 1952-1986. MC 192; A5:5-4. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Montana CowBelles, Inc. is an organization of ranch women. Records include general correspondence; minutes of board meetings, conventions, and workshops; various organizational materials, including articles of incorporation and membership lists; subject files of materials from local CowBelles groups; writings on local ranches, ranchers, and early settlers; and a scrapbook and miscellany.

Montana Equal Rights Council records, 1972-1987. MC 185. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Montana ERA Ratification Council was formed to push for the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Records include general correspondence; financial records; minutes; press releases; organizational materials; reports; speeches; subject files, including materials on local Equal Rights Councils, legislative action, Women’s Equality Day, Women’s History Week, and workshops; miscellany; and clippings.

Montana Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs records, 1921-1978. MC 281. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Montana Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs (originally the Montana Federation of Negro Women’s Clubs) was a coordinating organization for local clubs of African American women around Montana. Records include records and club materials of the statewide organization and of several of the local clubs, including the Phyllis Wheatley club of Billings, the Pearl Club of Butte, the Dunbar Art and Study Club of Great Falls, and the Pleasant Hour Club of Helena. In addition to state and local federation records, the collection contains National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs Northwest Region Colored Women’s Clubs material (1923-1970) including clippings, minutes, correspondence, and convention programs and reports.

Montana Good Government State Central Committee records, 1895-1919 (bulk 1913-1919). SC 567. Montana Historical Society Archives. Woman’s suffrage was considered by the Montana Constitutional Convention of 1889, but was defeated as an issue too controversial and therefore liable to delay statehood. In 1914, the woman’s suffrage amendment to the Montana constitution narrowly passed in the state legislature, three years after Montana elected Jeanette Rankin of Missoula to Congress. The name of the Montana State Central Committee of the National American Woman Suffrage Association was changed to the Montana Good Government State Central Committee after the passage of the suffrage amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920. The records in this collection include correspondence between the Montana affiliate of the National American Woman Suffrage Association and the national association; a speech by Jeannette Rankin to the State Federation of Women’s Clubs on June 4, 1914; newsletters of the Montana Equal Suffrage State Central Committee and correspondence from various political organizations; newsletters; voting records to verify women’s participation in Montana’s elections; and miscellaneous writings.

Montana International Women’s Year records, 1976-1977. MC 181. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Montana International Women’s Year Conference met in Helena in 1977. Records include general correspondence, financial records, minutes, and organizational materials for the MIWY Coordinating Committee; minutes, reports, and speeches for the conference; subject files for other committees and conferences; and clippings.

Montana Legislative Wives Club records, 1943-1979. SC 1935. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Montana Legislative Wives Club is a social club for the wives of Montana legislators. Records in this collection include financial records, minute books, constitution and bylaws, committee reports, invitation guest lists, and clippings.

Montana Press Women, Inc. records, 1986-1994. SC 1590. Montana Historical Society Archives. Montana Press Women, Inc. was organized in 1947 as an affiliate of the National Federation of Press Women, Inc. The collection consists of meeting minutes, notices, and agendas; presidential and financial reports; memoranda; membership lists; and award lists.

Montana Woman’s Christian Temperance Union records, 1883-1976. MC 160. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Montana Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (Montana WCTU) was devoted to prohibition and other social reforms. The collection includes correspondence of several state officials; constitution and minutes of annual meetings; financial records; membership books; and printed material reflecting WCTU’s national program and policies. Also included is a subgroup of records of the Kalispell WCTU locals, including correspondence, financial records, minutes, and scrapbooks.

Montana Women’s Lobby records, 1982-1994. MC 271. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Montana Women’s Lobby, like its predecessor, the Women’s Lobbyist Fund, is a political organization that lobbies the state legislature on behalf of Montana women. The majority of the records in this collection consist of general correspondence, financial records, legislative files, committee records, organizational records, subject files, clippings files of printed materials including “From the Hill” and “WLF News” newsletters, and speeches. Subject files include topics such as veteran’s preference, Women’s Lobby history, comparable worth, abortion, insurance, and taxation.

Montana Women’s Political Caucus records, 1974-1982. SC 2036. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Montana Women’s Political Caucus formed in Helena in the mid-1970s as a branch of the National Women’s Political Caucus. Records include correspondence, bank statements, notes taken at local and state meetings, and bylaws.

Nathalie Girard Belanger reminiscence, 1939. SC 408. Montana Historical Society Archives. Nathalie Belanger emigrated from Quebec in Canada to Montana Territory in 1868, where she operated a general store with her husband. In later years they opened general stores at Maiden, Gilt Edge, and Kendall, Montana. In this six-page typed reminiscence Mrs. Belanger discusses her trip to Montana and her experiences as a storekeeper in several Montana towns from 1868 to 1915.

National Extension Homemakers Council interviews, 1981-1982. SC 1774. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection consists of the typed transcripts of interviews conducted between 1981-1982 by Alene Stoner as part of the National Extension Homemakers Council Oral History Project. The interviewees include Marie Carlile of Smith River, Daisy Taylor of Prairie Elk, Myra Daniel and Lillie Badgley of Gallatin Gateway, Pearl Herndon of Miles City, Louella Hardie of Birdseye, and Elsie Rieger of Clinton. The women discuss their local Extension Homemakers clubs and the ideas they have acquired from the club programs.

Navy Mothers’ Club #11 (Helena, Montana), 1935-1991. SC 2025. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Navy Mothers’ Club #11, Helena, Montana, was a local chapter of a national organization dedicated to providing support for U.S. Navy, Marine Corps, Navy Reserve, and Coast Guard personnel and their parents. Records consist of minute books, a guest book, a scrapbook, and miscellany.

Nellie McKee papers, 1905-1961. SC 1559. Montana Historical Society Archives. Nellie McKee was a schoolteacher in Iowa, Montana, and California from 1905 to 1961. Her reminiscence describes her career, including the period from 1909 to 1944 when she taught in Montana, primarily at the Riverside School in the Flathead Valley. There are also three newspaper clippings on her retirement.

Order of the Eastern Star, Euclid Chapter #35 (Basin) records, 1905-1967. SC 2015. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Order of the Eastern Star is a women’s society. This small collection includes minute books, a dues ledger, secretary’s cash books, and audit reports for Basin’s Euclid Chapter #35.

Patricia Brennan Taylor subgroup, Brennan Family papers, 1879-1991. MC 118. Montana Historical Society Archives. Patricia Brennan Taylor was a journalist with the Great Falls Tribune during the World War II era. In 1944 Patricia Brennan, along with several other newsmen and newswomen from Great Falls, was invited to tour the northern supply route (Great Falls to Alaska) of the U.S. Air Transport Command. She submitted a series of nine stories to the Tribune based on her experiences during this trip.The Patricia Brennan Taylor subgroup within this collection contains incoming correspondence from soldiers in response to her “Letters From Home” series; outgoing correspondence to Montana: The Magazine of Western History regarding her father’s career; her own writings, including her series on the Alaskan Air Transport Command, “Letters From Home,” and a family history.

Patty Hard Ground and Fannie Standing Elk interview, 1957 Nov. 2. SC 105. Montana Historical Society Archives. Physical description: transcript, 4 pages. Scope and content: Patty Hard Ground was born on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation about 1877. She married Robert Hard Ground. She died in Missoula on 29 July 1963. Fannie Standing Elk was also born on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation about 1876. She married Frank Standing Elk. In this interview, the women describe witnessing the deaths of Head Chief and Young Mule on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation, Montana, on September 13, 1890, by U.S. cavalrymen. The two men had killed Hugh Boyle, nephew of a local rancher.

Pearl Danniel papers, 1885-1975. MC 237. Montana Historical Society Archives. Pearl Danniel was a prolific writer and a homesteader in the Rock Creek area of McCone County, Montana. This collection consists primarily of her autobiographical writings; drafts of novels and short stories; and poetry, essays, and political writings on a wide variety of topics including homesteading, Fort Peck Dam, the need for rural roads, political waste, and her anti-war sentiments. Much of her writing reflects the difficulty of survival in eastern Montana’s badlands, the loneliness of life on the homestead, the close community feeling of people living there, and her bitterness at the loss of her homestead.

Pearl Harlan Applegate papers, 1908. SC 1686. Montana Historical Society Archives. Pearl Harlan Applegate (1883-1977) was a schoolteacher in the Beaverhead County, Montana, mining camp of Farlin in 1908. She reminiscences about her experiences as a teacher and her encounter with the Bannock Indians in the Grasshopper Valley. This collection also contains a religious poem and a copy of her temporary Montana teaching permit.

Pony Woman’s Club records, 1923-1938. SC 1884. Montana Historical Society Archives. Records of the Pony, Montana, Woman’s Club consist of minute books, two resolutions, and two programs.

Rakel Oline “Lena” Herein diary, 1899-1943. SC 2547. Montana Historical Society Archives. In 1899, Rakel Oline (Lena) Herein emigrated to Montana from Norway to marry a sheep farmer and settle on his ranch in Carbon County. This collection contains both a scan of the original diary (in Norwegian) and a typed transcript translated into English by Jim Barton. The diary describes her life on the sheep farm, the progress of her children, her loneliness, her sadness at her separation from her family in Norway, and the day to day activities of a Norwegian American household.

Rebekah Assembly of Montana, Naomi Rebekah Lodge No. 1, Helena, records, 1923-1928. SC 1906. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Rebekah Assembly was the women’s lodge affiliated with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. This collection consists of records (1923-1928) of the Rebekah Assembly of Montana, Naomi Rebekah Lodge No. 1, Helena, Montana, and contains correspondence, minutes and organizational materials, financial records, and internal reports on daily lodge activities.

Ronan Women’s Club program, 1948-1949. SC 278. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection consists of a program of events for the Ronan Women’s Club, listing events for the year, officers, and membership.

Rose Gordon subgroup, Emmanuel Taylor Gordon papers, 1881-1980. MC 150. Montana Historical Society Archives. Rose Gordon was a businesswoman and physical therapist in White Sulphur Springs and the sister of African American singer and author Emmanuel Taylor Gordon. This family collection is arranged in four subgroups, one of which is solely dedicated to Rose Gordon and includes correspondence, financial records, legal documents, writings, clippings, and miscellany. Correspondence addressed to both Taylor and Rose is filed in a separate chronological order in the Taylor Gordon subgroup as incoming correspondence.

Sallie McMahon MacNeill papers, 1872-1918. SC 1035. Montana Historical Society Archives. Sallie MacNeill taught in Townsend and was Broadwater County Superintendent of Schools. This collection includes her correspondence, teaching certificates, railroad land leases, invitations, and materials relating to Mrs. MacNeill’s family including Michael McMahon, Austin McMahon, and Milo John MacNeill.

Samuel Thomas Hauser papers, 1864-1914. MC 37. Montana Historical Society Archives. Samuel T. Hauser was a business and political pioneer in Montana Territory. His wife, Ellen Farrar Hauser, was one of the leading ladies of Montana society. The collection contains a subgroup for Ellen, which consists of correspondence (1873-1906), financial records (1865-1906), and legal documents (1879-1917).

Selma Laun letter, 1907. SC 1917. Montana Historical Society Archives. Selma Laun worked as a nurse in Elkhorn in the early 1900s. In this 1907 letter to Miss Lydia Laun of Sugar Grove, Illinois, Selma Laun describes her life in Elkhorn and her work at the hospital. The letter was written on the back of a fold-out of twelve postcards of Helena.

Shipman Family papers, 1814-1989 bulk, 1841-1912. MC 274. Montana Historical Society Archives. Clark B. Shipman farmed in Vermont and New Jersey before traveling to Montana Territory with his son Henry in 1881. They homesteaded in the Lewistown area. Two of his daughters, Winifred and Gertrude, taught school in the area. Clark’s wife, Augusta, remained in the East with the rest of the children until 1890. The collection consists of correspondence (1841-1955) between various family members; diaries (1882-1908); and miscellaneous legal documents, financial record, and clippings. [The Shipmans were featured in the book Women in Waiting in the Westward Movement by Linda Peavy and Ursula Smith, Norman: University of Oklahoma, 1944.]

Society of Montana Pioneers records, 1884-1956. MC 68. Montana Historical Society Archives. This collection combines the records of the Society of Montana Pioneers and the Society of Sons and Daughters of Montana Pioneers, including meeting minutes, correspondence, and biographical materials on members and other early Montana residents.

Sue Howells reminiscence, 1972. SC 88. Montana Historical Society Archives. Sue and Joseph Howells homesteaded at Graceville from 1910 until 1915, when they moved to Kalispell. This fifty-six-page typed reminiscence by Sue Howells, entitled “Recollections of a Busy Life,” describes her move to Montana, their homesteading experiences, her marriage with Joseph Howells, and their move to Kalispell.

Theresa Canavan Berglund papers, 1924-1938. SC 60. Montana Historical Society Archives. Theresa Canavan Berglund was a teacher at Browning, Lincoln, and Helena. This collection contains twenty-seven notes to Mrs. Berglund from the parents of her students while she was teaching (possibly in Browning). For the most part, the notes provide excuses for students absent from school.

Three Mile [Stevensville] Garden Club records, 1961-1985. SC 1988. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Three Mile Garden Club was organized in Stevensville, Montana, in 1939, by a group of women interested in flower growing and arrangement, home and town beautification, and protection of the environment in the Bitterroot Valley. The collection includes yearbooks, program agendas, flower show programs, a club history, photographs, and clippings.

Veterans of World War I of the U.S.A. Department of Montana records, 1956-1985. MC 242. Montana Historical Society Archives. These records consist of the minutes, correspondence, financial records, convention programs, subject files, membership lists, and general orders of the Montana Veterans of World War I and its Ladies’ Auxiliary organization.

Virginia S. Burlingame papers, 1954-1989. MC 275. Montana Historical Society Archives. The core of this collection is a series of three book-length manuscripts by Virginia Burlingame (who used the pen name John Linton Struble): two on John J. Healy, a miner, Fort Benton sheriff, and Alaska entrepreneur; and one on John Barr, a Montana and Alaska riverboat captain. In addition, the collection contains general correspondence (1954-1989); several shorter manuscripts; and extensive research notes, roughly sorted by topic. There is also a list of birds seen in Bozeman during the Christmas Bird Count of 1973.

Wiley and Ella Mountjoy papers, 1911-1942. SC 545. Montana Historical Society Archives. Wiley Mountjoy (b. 1854) was superintendent of the Montana State Orphans Home in Twin Bridges and a teacher at the College of Montana in Deer Lodge. Papers consist of a reminiscence by his wife, Ella Mountjoy, describing her life in various Montana communities from 1864 to 1896; and letters (1942) from the Mountjoys to Merrill Burlingame describing the establishment of the College of Montana and Mountjoy’s work there.

Women in Military Service for America Memorial Foundation records, 1945-1996. MC 343. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Women in Military Service for America Memorial Foundation was founded to promote the building of a monument at the Arlington National Cemetery to honor all women who have served in the U.S. military. This collection documents Montana’s participation in the foundation and includes correspondence, clippings, and miscellany, as well as military discharge records arranged by county.

Women’s Helena for the Capital Club records, 1894. MC 48. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Women’s Helena for the Capital Club was a Helena, Montana–based organization promoting the establishment of Helena as the state capital of Montana. Records (1894) include incoming correspondence; county lists; a record book containing correspondence, financial reports, speeches, resolutions, clippings, broadsides; and miscellany.

Women’s Protective Union, No. 457 (Butte, Montana) records, 1901-1974. MC 174. Montana Historical Society Archives. The records of the Women’s Protective Union, No. 457, of Butte, Montana, contain general correspondence 1947-1972); financial records (1901-1972), including payment records; legal documents (1942-1962), including labor contracts; minutes (1903-1963); organizational records (1909-1960); subject files (1943-1954); and miscellany.

Young Democratic Club of Montana records, 1936-1939. MC 184. Montana Historical Society Archives. Gail Meagher Brown was the secretary, editor, national committee woman, and regional representative of the Young Democratic Club of Montana. This collection consists of her personal working files (1936-1939), including general correspondence, organizational materials, subject files, newsletters, and miscellany.

Young Women’s Christian Association (Helena, Montana) records, 1911-1998. MC 346. Montana Historical Society Archives. The Young Women’s Christian Association is a service organization for women. Records (1911-1998) of the Helena association include correspondence, financial records, legal documents, minutes, organizational records, reports, speeches, subject files, miscellany, and clippings.

Young Women’s Christian Association records, 1918-1943. SC 197. Montana Historical Society Archives. The records (1918-1919, 1943) of the Young Women’s Christian Association (YMCA) consist primarily of correspondence between Grace V. Erickson, Blanch D. Walker, and Nellie D. Sadler, members of the Flathead County, Montana, chapter, concerning the Second War Fund Campaign. There are a few letters concerned with miscellaneous association matters, and a few clippings and poems regarding the war effort.

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